Theory and History of Ontology ( Raul Corazzon | e-mail:

Bibliography on the Latin Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle's Categories


  1. "Ancient and Medieval Interpretations of Aristotle’s Categories." 2014. Quaestiones Disputatae no. 4.

    Edited by Joseph Almeida and Sarah Klitenic Wear.


    Medieval Commentary

    Lloyd A. Newton: Platonic Elements in Albert the Great’s Commentary on the Categories 114; Gregory T. Doolan: Aquinas on the Metaphysician’s vs. the Logician’s Categories 133; Mark Roberts: The Second Sense of Being 156; Mark Gossiaux: James of Viterbo on the Nature and Division of the Categories 167; Andrew LaZella: The Simplicity of Being in Duns Scotus’s Quaestiones Super Praedicamenta Aristotelis and Later Works 191-210.

  2. Adamo, Luigi. 1967. "Boezio e Mario Vittorino traduttori e interpreti dell' Isagoge di Porfirio." Rivista Critica di Storia della Filosofia no. 22:141-164.

  3. Adams, Marylin McCord. 2000. "Re-reading De Grammatico, or Anselm's Introduction to Aristotle's Categories." Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale no. 11:83-112.

  4. Amerini, Fabrizio. 2013. "Fourteenth-Century Debates about the Nature of the Categories." In Aristotle's Categories in the Byzantine, Arabic and Latin Traditions, edited by Ebbesen, Sten, Marenbon, John and Thom, Paul, 217-244. Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters.

  5. Andrews, Robert. 1988. Peter of Auvergne's Commentary on Aristotle's Categories: Edition, Translation, and Analysis.

    Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, 1988 (two volumes), available at UMI Dissertation Express, reference number: 8804534.

  6. ———. 2001. "Question Commentaries on the Categories in the Thirteenth Century." Medioevo.Rivista di Storia della filosofia Medievale no. 26:265-326.

    "A philosophical genre new to the thirteenth century was the question commentary. Commentaries on Aristotle's Categories (a book "read by children"), extending in an unbroken tradition back to antiquity, by 1300 had developed into sophisticated analyses of the fundamental concepts underlying the rest of logic and philosophy. In this article I present, from both published and manuscript sources, texts selected with two purposes in mind: to examine the development of the question commentary out of the inserted dubia of the literal commentary, and to point out a particular shift in the concept of quantity, which may serve as a criterion for relative dating of Categories commentaries."

  7. Ashworth, Earline Jennifer. 1991. "A Thirteenth-century interpretation of Aristotle on equivocation and analogy." Canadian Journal of Philosophy no. Supplementary volume 17:85-101.

    "This paper is a case study of how Aristotle's remarks about equivocation were read in the thirteenth century. I analyze the divisions of equivocation and analogy found in an anonymous commentary on the Sophistici Elenchi written in Paris between 1270 and 1280; and I show the part played by four sources: 1) the Greek commentators of late antiquity; 2) the new translations of Aristotle's Physics and Metaphysics; 3) Arabic works, particularly those of Averroes; 4) new grammatical doctrines, notably modi significandi."

  8. ———. 1997. "L'analogie de l'être et les homonymes. Categories, 1 dans la "Guide de l'étudiant"." In L'enseignement de la philosophie au XIII siècle. Autour du "Guide de l'étudiant" du ms. Ripoll 109. Actes du Colloque International, edited by Lafleur, Claude and Carrier, Joanne, 281-295. Turnhout: Brepols.

  9. Asztalos, Monika. 1993. "Boethius as a Transmitter of Greek Logic to the Latin West: the Categories." Harvard Studies in Classical Philology no. 95:367-407.

    " purpose in this paper is to bring out what these commentaries, and especially the ones on the Isagoge and the Categories, reveal about Boethius’ working methods in his earliest works on Greek logic. I intend to deal less with the end product than with the road to it, and to point to the stages of development and improvement exhibited within these early works." (p. 367)


    "Boethius devoted his first effort in Greek philosophy to Porphyry’s Isagoge, and later, in the year of his consulate (510), when he was in all likelihood in his late twenties, he spent all his spare time commenting for the first time on a work by Aristotle, the Categories. Ever since Samuel Brandt attempted a chronology of Boethius’ works on the basis of their internal references, it has been commonly held that when Boethius began commenting on the Categories, he had already written both his expositions of Porphyry’s Isagoge (hereafter Isag. 1 and Isag. 2), the first one a dialogue in two books based on Marius Victorinus’ apparently incomplete Latin version, the second a five book commentary on his own, complete translation. (2) This is certainly not the place for a full discussion of the chronology of Boethius’ works, but for the arguments of this paper it is necessary to establish the order between Isag. 2 and the commentary on the Categories (CC)." (p. 368)


    "... I am not in a position to judge whether or not Boethius displays real originality in his later, more mature works. But I think that it would be unfair to expect novel interpretations in commentaries like the Isag. 1 and CC, which, if my assumptions in the first sections of this paper are correct, are not only the earliest of Boethius’ works on Greek philosophy but also the context in which he first encountered Aristotle. He seems to have come quite unprepared to both the Isagoge and the Categories, unarmed with proper translations and unfamiliar with the work he was commenting on. Boethius is indeed an epitome of the expression docendo discimus." (p. 407)

    (2) 2 S. Brandt, “Entstehungszeit und zeitliche Folge der Werke von Boethius,” Philologus 62 (1903), 141-154 and 234-275. See also pp. XXVI-XXIX of the Prolegomena to Anicii Manlii Severini Boethii In Isagogen Porphyrii commenta, rec. S. Brandt, Corpus

    Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum 48, Wien/Leipzig, 1906. In his “ Stylistic Tests and the Chronology of the Works of Boethius,” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 18 (1907), 123-156, A. P. McKinley’s conclusions concerning the chronology of Isag. 7,

    Isag. 2, and the commentary on the Categories (hereafter CC) are the same as Brandt’s.

    McKinley studied the frequency of certain particles in these commentaries as well as in Boethius’ translations of the Isagoge and Categories, assuming that Boethius’ language was influenced by his translations of Porphyry and Aristotle. Now, some of McKinley’s data corroborate Brandt’s chronology whereas others support the one I will suggest below. Furthermore, McKinley’s tests were made before the appearance of L. MinioPaluello’s critical editions of Boethius’ translations in the Aristoteles Latinus and would therefore have to be remade. I also believe that a necessary preliminary stage in examining whether Boethius’ translating activities influenced his choice of particles is to compare his Latin commentaries with the extant Greek sources. Since there is no adequate source apparatus in any of the editions of Boethius’ commentaries, this would mean a great deal of work. Concerning the question whether Boethius wrote Isag. 2 before or after CC, L. M. De Rijk follows Brandt’s view on pp. 125-127 of “On the chronology of Boethius’ works on logic,” Vivarium 2 (1964), 1-9 and 125-162, on exactly the same grounds as the ones on which Brandt based his conclusions and without corroborating them further.

  10. Bechtle, Gerald. 2008. "Metaphysicizing the Aristotelian Categories. Two References to the Parmenides in Simplicius’ Commentary on the Categories (Simplicius, In Categorias 4

    [CAG 8, 75,6 Kalbfleisch] and In Categorias 8 [291,2 K.])." Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum / Journal of Ancient Christianity no. 12:150-165.

  11. Biard, Joël. 1991. "Sémiologie et théorie des catégories chez Albert de Saxe." In Itinéraires d'Albert de Saxe, Paris-Vienne au XIVe siècle, edited by Biard, Joël. Paris: Vrin.

  12. ———. 2003. "Le traité sur les catégories de Blaise de Parme." In La tradition médiévale des Catégories (XIIe-XVe siècles), edited by Biard, Joël and Rosier-Catach, Irène, 365-378. Leuwen: Éditions Peeters.

  13. Biard, Joël, and Rosier-Catach, Irène, eds. 2003. La tradition médiévale des Catégories (XIIe-XVe siècles). Louvain: Peeters.

    Actes du XIIIe Symposium européen de logique et de sémantique médiévales (Avignon, 6-10 juin 2000).

    Table des matières: Introduction V-XI;

    A. Nombre et nature des categories.

    Valentin Omelyantchyk: La question d'Alexandre dans les commentaires medievaux sur les Catégories 1; Giorgio Pini: Scotus on Deducing Aristotle's Categories 23; Mischa von Perger: Understanding the Categories by Division: Walter of Burley vs. William of Ockham 37; William McMahon: Some non-standard views and their definition in Ockham's Nominalism 53; Allan Bäck: Avicenna on relations 69;

    B. Problèmes linguistiques et logiques.

    Costantino Marmo: Types of Opposition in the Post-predicamenta in Thirteenth-century Commentaries 85; C. H. Kneepkens: Clarembald of Arras and the Notionistae 105; E. Jennifer Ashworth: L'equivocité, l'univocité et les noms propres 127; Claude Panaccio: Connotative Concepts and Their Definition in Ockham's Nominalism 141; Fabienne Pironet: Siger de Brabant et les catégories: la signification des termes accidentels 157; Fabrizio Amerini: Catégories et langage mental: une critique de Francois de Prato a Guillaume d'Ockham 173; Richard Gaskin: Complexe significabilia and Aristotle's Categories 187;

    C. Problèmes physiques, psychologiques, métaphysiques.

    E. P. Bos: Petrus Thomae on Unity that is less than Numerical 207; Christopher Martin: The Role of Categories in the Development of Abelard's Theory of Possibility 225; William Courtenay: The Categories, Michael of Massa and Natural Philosophy at Paris, 1335-1340 243; Simo Knuuttila: Locating Emotions in the Categories 261;

    D. Problemes theologiques.

    Andrea Tabarroni: "Utrum deus sit in praedicamenta": Ontological Simplicity and Categorical Inclusion 271; Luisa Valente: "Talia sunt subiecta qualia predicata permittunt": le principe de l'approche contextuelle 289;

    E. Monographies.

    Yukio Iwakuma: William of Champeaux on Aristotle's Categories 313; Joke Spruyt: Twelfth-Century Gloses on Categories 329; Sten Ebbesen: Anonymus D'Orvillensis on the Categories 347; Joël Biard: Le traité sur les catégories de Blaise de Parme 365.;

    Bibliographie 379; Index des noms 399-401.

  14. Bos, Egbert Peter. 1998. "The division of Being over the Categories according to Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus." In John Duns Scotus (1265/6-1308): renewal of philosophy, edited by Bos, Egbert Peter, 183-196. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

    Acts of the Third Symposium organized by the Dutch Society for Medieval Philosophy Medium Aevum (May 23 and 24, 1996).

    "In this contribution we shall investigate the views held by Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus concerning the nature and number of the categories. As is traditional in medieval logic, one first has to determine the nature of something, and then its division (in this case their number). Each in their own way, Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas intended to safeguard the number of ten by way of a proof, i.e. a deduction. Duns Scotus, however, believes that such a proposition is impossible. He also investigates the opinions of those who try to infer the nature of the categories from the various modi predicandi, thus possibly criticizing Albert and Thomas -- be it justly or unjustly. In his opinion, the members of the categories refer to distinct 'realities' ('realities' in a Scotistic sense). None of them can be reduced, neither to each other, nor to something else. All members possess a certain formal reality, although this is not merely identical with the being of an actual thing. (5) Scotus accepts the number of ten categories with reference to tradition, (6) but he gives some negative arguments. He demonstrates that there are neither more categories (for instance motus as an eleventh category), (7) nor less than ten (for instance ens per se and ens in alio alone). So he concludes to the number of ten in a negative way: there are no more, and no less." pp. 183-185

    (5) Th. Kobusch, 'Substanz und Qualität. Die Reduzierung der Kategorien nach Wilhelm von Ockham' in D. Koch and Kl. Bort (eds.), Kategorie und Kategorialität. Historisch-systematische Untersuchungen zum Begriff der Kategorie im Philosophischen Denken. Festschrift für Klaus Hartmann zum 65. Geburtstag, Würzburg 1990, 79.

    (6) Just as his (supposed) disciple Francis of Mayronnes would. E. P. Bos, 'The Theory of Ideas According to Francis of Meyronnes (Commentary on the Sentences (Conflatus) I, dist. 47), in L. Benakis (ed.), Néoplatonisme et philosophie médiévale. Acts du colloque international de Corfu, 6-8 octobre 1995, Bruges 1997, 211-227.

    (7) Which is also suggested by Aristotle in one place of his work, where it said that for each category there is a substrate, for instance for the quale, for the quantum, for the when, for the where, and for the motion. See Aristotle, Metaphysics, VII, 4 1029b 25.


    1. The number of categories turns out to be a problem for medieval philosophers. It is pointed out that the Philosopher himself was not too consistent in his listings of the categories. Avicenna, for instance, does not accept the number of ten just like that.

    2. Some Medievals try to deduce the ten categories. Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas do so each in their own (although quite similar) ways, starting from their own respective ontology.

    3. Scotus does not undertake any kind of deduction. He stresses the realiter difference between the diverse categories. He only accepts the number of ten categories on the basis of tradition. He differentiates between the way the metaphysician and the logician views the list of ten categories.

    4. Scotus does reduce non-entia, figmenta, and so on to entia, as members of the categories. To Scotus this seems to be a matter of far greater concern than it was to his predecessors. After Scotus philosophers are very much interested in the problem whether those non-positive terms can be regarded as members of the ten traditional categories." (p. 196)

  15. Bos, Egbert P. 1999. "John Buridan on Substance in his Commentary (Summulae) on Aristotle's Categories." In Signs and Signification. Vol. I, edited by Gill, Harjeet Singh and Manetti, Giovanni, 85-99. New Delhi: Bahri Publications.

    "As a master of arts John Buridan commented on Aristotle's logic. The quaestiones, in which specific problems are discussed in the traditional medieval form, are more elaborate and detailed commentaries.

    One of Aristotle's text to be commented are the Categories (Praedicamenta). The Quaestiones in Praedicamenta have been edited recently by J. Schneider (München, 1983); I have prepared a critical edition of Buridan's commentary (summulae) on the same work, which is due to appear soon. This edition is part of an intemational project, of which it is the intention to issue the first complete edition of Buridan's Summulae, which contains eight treatises, supplemented with a new edition of his Sophismata.

    In the present contribution I shall give an analysis of Buridan's commentary on the category of substance. Before entering this subject, I shall make some remarks on the general nature of the work. This contribution is practically the same as a part of the introduction to my forthcoming edition." p. 85

    "4. A summary of the Contents

    Buridan starts with a discussion on aequivocatio, univocatio and denominatio. Sometimes, he says, aequivocatio is attributed to a word having signification, sometimes to things signified. Here (3.1.1.) Buridan attributes aequivocatio to things as far as they are signified equivocally by one and the same word. This signification is not matched by one concept (ratio, 3.1.2), but by two, or more, one for each thing. E.g. a dog, a star and a fish are signified by the word canis ('dog') that may have supposition for them under different concepts.

    There is univocation when the several things signified are united, not only by a common designation, but also by a common definition. Buridan emphasizes (3.1.2) that both equivocatio and univocatio are on the level of conventional terms and propositions, and are not properties of mental terms and propositions.

    Equivocation and univocation are mutually opposed in an exhaustive division. The third item of the Antepraedicamenta, denomination (denominatio), is different. For a term to be denominative it must satisfy both a morphological-cum-semantical criterion and a purely semantical one. First, (1.a) it must be a concrete term (a term signifying concrete entities), and (1.b) it must be morphologically related to the corresponding abstract term; album ('white [thing]') satisfies (1.a-b), having albedo ('whiteness') as its abstract counterpart. Second, (2) the term must have appellation. This, Buridan explains, means that it must 'evoke' or 'connote' some disposition which is extrinsic to the nature of that for which the term supposits. Album (`white [thing]') satisfies this condition; it may supposit, say, for a man, but it also connotes something which is extrinsic (nonessential) to man, namely whiteness. By contrast, homo ('man') only satisfies criteria (1.a-b); it is a concrete noun with a morphologically related abstract counterpart, viz. humanitas. Criterion (2) remains unsatisfied because humanity is essential to all supposits of homo and thus cannot fulfil the role of an extrinsic disposition connoted by the term." p. 91 (notes omitted).

  16. Bos, Egbert Peter. 2000. "Some Notes on the Meaning of the Term 'Substantia' in the Tradition of Aristotle's 'Categories'." In L'élaboration du vocabulaire philosophique au Moyen Âge, edited by Hamesse, Jacqueline and Steel, Carlos, 511-537. Turnhout: Brepols.

    Actes du Colloque international de Louvain-la-Neuve et Leuven, 12-14 septembre 1998 organisé par la Société Internationale pour l'Étude de la philosophie Médiévale

  17. ———. 2002. "John Versor's Albertism in his Commentaries to Porphyry and the Categories." In Chemins de la pensée Médiévale. Études offertes à Zénon Kaluza, edited by Bakker, Paul J.J.M., Faye, Emmanuel and Grellard, Christophe, 47-78. Turnhout: Brepols.

  18. Boulnois, Olivier. 2008. "Les catégories selon Duns Scot." In Giovanni Duns Scoto. Studi e ricerche nel VII Centenario della sua morte in onore di P. César Saco Alarcón. Vol I, edited by Nuñez, Martín Carbajo, 357-377. Roma: Antonianum.

    " question des catégories constitue une aporie que toute métaphysique doit traverser, et que Duns Scot lui-même a parcouru minutieusement. Son traitement des catégories est-il déjà un fondement de l'univocité? Ou, a contrario, une doctrine qu'il lui a fallu abandonner?

    L'élucidation du statut des catégories va évidemment de pair avec une interprétation de l'ouvrage éponyme (attribué à Aristote, mais peut-être d"origine scolaire): les Catégories. Lïndécision portant sur le skopos du traité donne aux interprètes du grain à moudre. En tous cas, si nous pouvons maintenant s"efforcer de renouer avec une compréhension de l'aristotélisme authentique, nous le pouvons qu'en tenant compte de la tradition de lïnterprétation. et notamment de l'interprétation médiévale. Celle-ci, tantôt a fait surgir des questions essentielles, tantôt a recouven le texte de questions étrangères. Dans un cas comme dans l'autre. il nous faut les reprendre, soit pour les faire nôtres, soit pour les détruire.

    Dans ce cadre historique et herméneulique plus vaste, je me limiterai ici à une de ces interprétations, celle de Duns Scot. Nous bénéficions depuis peu d'une nouvelle édition critique de son Commentaire par questions sur les Catégories. Pour l'architecture d'ensemble de l'ouvrage, il est frappant que Scot ajoute une réflexion préliminaire sur le concept de catégorie en général, alors qu'une telle réflexion est absente chez Aristote. JI consacre en effet 4 questions à des considérations générales sur les catégories, - avant d'examiner en 7 questions l'objet des chapitres 1 à 3 des Catégories (Univoques, équivoques et paronymes; genres et espèces). et de consacrer 33 questions aux diverses catégories en particulier, ainsi qu'aux postprédicaments.

    Ces quatre questions sont les suivantes:

    1. Le livre des Catégories pone-t-il sur dix sons vocaux signifiants? (Problème du rapport entre la grammaire et la logique).

    2. Ce livre a-t-il pour sujet les dix catégories? (Problème du rapport entre le nominalisme et le réalisme).

    3. Y a-t-il un prédicat intentionnel commun à ces termes les plus généraux?

    4. L'être est-il univoque aux dix catégories?

    Je suivrai le fil conducteur de ces 4 questions." (pp. 357-358, note omise)

  19. Breton, Stanislas. 1962. "La déduction thomiste des catégories." Revue Philosophique de Louvain no. 60:5-32.

  20. Brower, Jeffrey E. 1996. Medieval Theories of Relations Before Aquinas: Categories Commentaries, A.D. 510-1250, University of Iowa.

    Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation available at UMI Dissertation Express ref. n. 9715116.

  21. Bruun, Otto, and Corti, Lorenzo, eds. 2005. Les Catégories et leur histoire. Paris: Vrin.

    Table des matières. Jonathan Barnes: Les Catégories et les Catégories 11; Curzio Chiesa: Porphyre et le problème de la substance des Catégories 81; Benjamin Morison: Les Catégories d'Aristote comme introduction à la logique 103; Anthony Kenny: Les Catégories chez les Pères de l'Église latins 121; Michael Frede: Les Catégories d'Aristote et les Pères de l'Église Grecs 135; Alain de Libera: L'onto-théo-logique de Boèce: doctrine des catégories et théorie de la prédication dans le De Trinitate 175; John Marenbon: Les Catégories au début du Moyen Âge 223; Sten Ebbesen: Les Catégories au Moyen Âge et au début de la modernité 245; Stéphane Dieble: Catégories, conversation et philosophie chez al-Fàràbi 275; Katerina Ierodiakonou: La réception byzantine des Catégories d'Aristote 307; Otto Bruun et Lorenzo Corti: Bibliographie 341; Index locorum 363; Index nominum et rerum 369-396.

  22. Conti, Alessandro D. 1985. "Thomas Sutton's Commentary on the Categories According to MS Oxford, Merton College 289." In The Rise of British Logic. Acts of the Sixth European Symposium on Medieval Logic and Semantics Balliol College, Oxford, 19-24 June 1983, edited by Lewry, Osmund, 173-213. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.

  23. ———. 1992. "Elenco delle Dubitationes e delle Quaestiones contenute nei commenti di Giacomo da Piacenza all' Isagoge e alle Categorie." In L'insegnamento della logica a Bologna nel XIV secolo. Atti del Seminario (Bologna, settembre 1990). edited by Buzzetti, Dino, Ferriani, Maurizio and Trabattoni, Andrea, 441-453. Bologna: Istituto per la storia dell'Universitá di Bologna.

  24. Côté, André. 1964. "Le nombre des catégories aristotéliciennes." Laval Théologique et Philosophique no. 20:165-175.

    "Il nous est parvenu d ’Aristote un petit traité de logique dont l’unique but, semble-t-il, est de vouloir ramener toutes choses à l’une ou l’autre de dix catégories. L’usage constant que fait l’auteur des

    noms de ces catégories dans tous ses autres traités n’est pas sans suggérer qu’il serait tout à fait impossible de faire oeuvre de science telle que l’entend Aristote sans l’aide de ces catégories. Or, l’on est forcé de noter que l’énumération qu’il en fait lui-même en plusieurs traités différents n’est pas toujours la même : en fait, et le nombre et l’ordre des choses énumérées varient.

    La chose n’a pas été sans attirer l’attention de nombreux successeurs d ’Aristote, et, disciples comme critiques lui ont le plus souvent accordé un intérêt qui dépassait la simple curiosité. Mais les explications proposées par les uns ou les autres n’ont pas toujours touché, à notre avis, le fond du problème qui nous apparaît comme étant strictement d ’ordre logique. Il semble donc que toute solution éventuelle du problème tel que posé devrait s’appuyer sur les réponses aux deux questions préliminaires suivantes, à savoir : quel est le rôle précis que jouent les Catégories dans l’ensemble de la logique aristotélicienne ; et, est-il possible de démontrer, d ’une preuve proprement logique, le nombre de ces catégories ?

    Nous nous limiterons ici à suggérer une réponse à ces deux questions, réponse que nous croyons se rattacher à une certaine tradition logique à laquelle nous aimerions associer les noms de Porphyre,

    Boèce et Albert le Grand en particulier." (p. 165, notes omises)

  25. Courtenay, William J. 2003. "The Categories, Michael de Massa, and Natural Philosophy at Paris, 1335–1340." In La tradition médiévale des catégories (XIIe–XVe siècles), edited by Biard, Joël and Rosier-Carach, Irène, 243-260. Louvain: Peeters.

    Reprinted as Chapter XV in W. J. Courtenay, Ockham and Ockhamism. Studies in the Dissemination and Impact of His Thought, Leiden: Brill 2008, pp. 329-346.

  26. Courtine, Jean-François. 1980. "Note complémentaire pour l'histoire du vocabulaire de l'être. Les traductions latines d' ousía et la compréhension romano-stoïcienne de l'être." In Concepts et Catégories de la pensée antique, edited by Aubenque, Pierre, 33-87. Paris: Vrin.

    Repris dans: J-F. Courtine, Les catégories de l'être. Études de philosophie ancienne et médiévale, Paris: Press Universitaires de France 2003, pp. 11-77.

  27. Demetracopoulos, John A. 1996. "Aristotle's Categories in the Greek and Latin Medieval exegetical tradition. The case of the argument for the non-simultaneity of relatives." Cahiers de l'Institut du Moyen-Âge grec et latin no. 66:117-134.

  28. ———. 2006. "Alcuin and the Realm of Application of Aristotle's Categories." In Intellect et imagination dans la philosophie médiévale / Intellect and Imagination in Medieval Philosophy / Intelecto e imaginação na filosofia medieval, edited by Pacheco, Maria Candida da Costa Reis M. and Meirinhos, José Francisco, 1733-1742. Turnhout: Brepols.

  29. Desbordes, Françoise. 1988. "Homonymie et synonymie d'aprés les textes théoriques latins." In L'ambiguité. Cinq études historiques, edited by Rosier, Irène, 51-102. Lille: Presses Universitaires.

  30. Diebler, Stéphane. 2005. "Catégories, conversation et philosophie chez Al-Farabi." In Les Catégories et leur histoire, edited by Bruun, Otto and Corti, Lorenzo, 275-305. Paris: Vrin.

  31. Ebbesen, Sten. 1993. "Medieval Latin Glosses and Commentaries on Aristotelian Logical Texts of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries." In Glosses and Commentaries on Aristotelian Logical Texts: The Syriac, Arabic and Medieval Latin Traditions, edited by Burnett, Charles, 129-177. London: The Warburg Institute, University of London.

  32. ———. 1999. "Anonymus D'Orvillensis' commentary on Aristotle's Categories." Cahiers de l'Institut du Moyen-Âge grec et latin no. 70:229-423.

  33. ———. 2001. "A Porretanean commentary on Aristotle's Categories." Cahiers de l'Institut du Moyen-Âge grec et latin no. 72:35-88.

  34. ———. 2002. "Late-ancient ancestors of medieval philosophical Commentaries." In Il Commento filosofico nell'Occidente latino (secoli XIII/XV) / The philosophical commentary uin the Latin West (13 - 15th centuries), edited by Fioravanti, Gianfranco, Leonardi, Claudio and Perfetti, Stefano, 1-15. Turnhout: Brepols.

    Reprinted as Chapter 7 in: S. Ebbesen, Greek-Latin Philosophical Interaction. Collected essays of Sten Ebbesen. Volume 1, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008, pp. 97-106.

  35. ———. 2005. "Les Catégories au Moyen Âge et au début de la modernité." In Les Catégories et leur histoire, edited by Bruun, Otto and Corti, Lorenzo, 245-274. Paris: Vrin.

  36. Ebbesen, Sten, Marenbon, John, and Thom, Paul, eds. 2013. Aristotle's Categories in the Byzantine, Arabic and Latin Traditions. Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters.

  37. Erismann, Christophe. 2005. "La genèse du réalisme ontologique durant le haut Moyen Âge." École pratique des hautes études, Section des sciences religieuses. Annuaire no. 114:429-434.

    Étude doctrinale des théories réalistes de la substance dans le cadre de la réception latine des Catégories d'Aristote et de l'Isagoge de Porphyre (850-1110).

  38. ———. 2012. "Identité et ressemblance. Marius Victorinus, lecteur d'Aristote." Les Études philosophiques no. 101:181-190.

  39. ———. 2014. "Paternités multiples. Les débats sur les relatifs entre Anselme et Abélard." Medioevo. Rivista di Storia della Filosofia Medievale no. 39:11-30.

  40. Galonnier, Alain. 2017. "Nature, orientation exégétique et postérité des Dix catégories du Pseudo Augustin." HAL.archives

  41. Gibson, Margaret. 1982. "Latin commentaries on logic before 1200." Bulletin de Philosophie Médiévale no. 24:54-64.

  42. Girard, Charles. 2018. "Logique ou métaphysisque ? L'enjeu de la science catégoriale d'après Raoul le Breton." Les Études philosophiques no. 183:415-424.

  43. Gossiaux, Mark. 2014. "James of Viterbo on the Nature and Division of the Categories." Quaestiones Disputatae no. 4:166-189.

  44. Goubier, Frédéric. 2000. "Influences prédicatives et conséquences référentielles : un aspect de l'approche terministe de la première moitié du XIIIe siècle." Cahiers de l'institut du Moyen Âge grec et latin no. 71:37-70.

  45. Hadot, Pierre. 1959. "Un fragment du commentaire perdu de Boèce sur les Catégories d'Aristote dans le Codex Bernensis 363." Archives d'histoire doctrinale et httéraire du Moyen Age no. 34:11-27.

    Repris dans P. Hadot, Plotin, Porphyre: études néoplatoniciennes, Paris: Les belles Lettres, 1999, pp. 383-410.

  46. ———. 1968. Porphyre et Victorinus. Paris: Études augustiniennes.

    Two volumes; Vol. 2 contains Latin texts of Victorinus and Greek texts, with French translation, of Porphyry.

  47. Hall, Alexander W. 2008. "John Buridan: on Aristotle's Categories." In Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle's Categories, edited by Newton, Lloyd A., 295-316. Leiden: Brill.

  48. Hansen, Heine. 2012. John Pagus on Aristotle's Categories: A Study and Edition of the "Rationes super Praedicamenta Aristotelis". Leuven: Leuven University Press.

  49. Hereza Modrego, David. 2021. "Catégories et réflexion. Maimon, lecteur d'Aristote." Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale no. 109:7-25.

  50. Hissette, Roland. 1997. "Les éditions anciennes de la traduction attribuée à Guillaume de Luna du commentaire moyen d'Averroès sur les Catégories." Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale no. 39:163-173.

  51. ———. 2001. "Les titres intermédiaires et le terme dixit dans la version latine médiévale du commentaire moyen d'Averroès sur les Catégories." Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale no. 43:61-74.

  52. Hochshild, Joshua. 2001. "Words, concepts and things. Cajetan on the subject of the Categories." Dionysius no. 19:159-166.

  53. Hugonnard-Roche, Henri. 1997. "Les "Catégories" d'Aristote comme introduction à la philosophie, dans un Commentaire syriaque de Sergius de Res' aina (d. 536)." Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Medievale no. 8:339-364.

  54. Ierodiakonou, Katerina. 2005. "La réception byzantine des Catégories d'Aristote " In Les Catégories et leur histoire, edited by Bruun, Otto and Corti, Lorenzo, 307-339. Paris: Vrin.

  55. Iwakuma, Yukio. 2003. "William of Champeaux on Aristotle's Categories." In La tradition médiévale des Catégories (XIIe-XVe siècles), edited by Biard, Joël and Rosier-Catach, Irène, 313-328. Leuwen: Éditions Peeters.

  56. Kenny, Anthony. 2008. "Aristotle Categories in the Latin Fathers " In From Empedocles to Wittgenstein. Historical Essays in Philosophy, 62-73. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    Originally published in French in: O. Bruun, L. Corti (éds.), Les Catégories et leur histoire, Paris: Vrin, 2005, pp. 121-134.

  57. Klima, Gyula. 1999. "Ockham's Semantics and Ontology of the Categories." In The Cambridge Companion to Ockham, edited by Spade, Paul Vincent, 118-142. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  58. Kneepkens, C. H. J. M. 2003. "Clarembald of Arras and the Notionistae." In La tradition médiévale des Catégories (XIIe-XVe siècles), edited by Biard, Joël and Rosier-Catach, Irène, 105-126. Leuwen: Éditions Peeters.

  59. Korolec, Jerzy. 1975. "Commentaires de Prague sur les Catégories, la Physique, la Métaphysique et sur le Traité de l'âme d'Aristote en tant que sources à l' historie de la querelle sur les universaux au cours des XIVe et XVe siècles." Mediaevalia Philosophica Polonorum no. 21:145-152.

  60. Libera, Alain de. 1995. "Boèce et l'interprétation médiévale des Catégories. De la paronymie à la denominatio." In Aristotelica Secunda. Mélanges offerts a Christian Rutten, edited by Motte, André and Denooz, Joseph, 255-264. Liège: Université de Liège. Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres.

  61. Livesey, Steven J. 2001. "Medieval Latin Aristotle Commentators: addenda and biographical precisions." Bulletin de Philosophie Médiévale no. 43:95-132.

  62. Lohr, Charles H. 2000. "Renaissance Latin translations of the Greek commentaries on Aristotle." In Humanism and Early Modern Philosophy, edited by Kraye, Jill and Stone, M.W.F., 24-40. New York: Routledge.

  63. Maierù, Alfonso. 1982. "Alcune note sulla Expositio super universalia Porphyrii et artem veterem Aristotelis di Paolo Veneto: analogie e differenze con i corrispondenti commenti di Walter Burley." In English Logic in Italy in the 14th and 15th Centuries, edited by Maierù, Alfonso, 293-303. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

  64. Marenbon, John. 1980. "John Scottus and the 'Categoriae Decem'." In Eriugena: Studien zu seinen Quellen. Vorträge des III. Internationalen Eriugena-Colloquiums (Freiburg/Br. 27.-30.10. 1979), edited by Beierwaltes, Werner, 117-134. Heidelberg: C. Winter.

    Reprinted as Chapter V in: John Marenbon, Aristotelian Logic, Platonism, and the Context of Early Medieval Philosophy in the West, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000.

  65. ———. 1981. From the Circle of Alcuin to the School of Auxerre. Logic, theology and philosophy in the early Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  66. ———. 1992. "Vocalism, Nominalism and the Commentaries on the Categories from the Earlier Twelfth Century." Vivarium no. 30:51-61.

    Reprinted as Chapter XIII in: John Marenbon, Aristotelian Logic, Platonism, and the Context of Early Medieval Philosophy in the West, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000.

  67. ———. 1993. "Medieval Latin Commentaries and Glosses on Aristotelian Logical Texts, before c. 1150 A.D." In Glosses and Commentaries on Aristotelian Logical Texts: The Syriac, Arabic and Medieval Latin Traditions, edited by Burnett, Charles, 77-127. London: The Warburg Institute, University of London.

    Reprinted as Chapter II in: John Marenbon, Aristotelian Logic, Platonism, and the Context of Early Medieval Philosophy in the West, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000.

  68. ———. 1997. "Glosses and commentaries on the Categories and De interpretatione before Abelard." In Dialektik und Rhetorik im früheren und hohen Mittelalter. Rezeption, Überlieferung und gesellschaftliche Wirkung antiker Gelehrsamkeit vornehmlich im 9. und 12. Jahrhundert, edited by Fried, Johannes, 21-49. München: Oldenbourg.

    Reprinted as Chapter IX in: John Marenbon, Aristotelian Logic, Platonism, and the Context of Early Medieval Philosophy in the West, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000.

  69. ———. 2005. "Les Catégories au début du Moyen Âge." In Les Catégories et leur histoire, edited by Bruun, Otto and Corti, Lorenzo, 223-243. Paris: Vrin.

  70. ———. 2013. "The Tradition of Studying the Categories in the early Middlle Ages (until c. 1200): a revised working catalogue of glosses, commentaries and treatises." In Aristotle's Categories in the Byzantine, Arabic and Latin Traditions, edited by Ebbesen, Sten, Marenbon, John and Thom, Paul, 139-173. Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters.

  71. Marmo, Costantino. 1992. "La teoria delle relazioni nei commenti alle Categorie da Gentile da Cingoli a Matteo da Gubbio." In L'insegnamento della logica a Bologna nel XIV secolo. Atti del Seminario (Bologna, settembre 1990). edited by Buzzetti, Dino, Ferriani, Maurizio and Trabattoni, Andrea, 353-391. Bologna: Istituto per la storia dell'Universitá di Bologna.

  72. McCord Adams, Marylin. 2000. "Re-reading De Grammatico, or Anselm's Introduction to Aristotle's Categories." Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale no. 11:83-112.

  73. McMahon, William. 1981. "Radulphus Brito on the sufficiency of the categories." Cahiers de l'Institut du Moyen-Âge grec et latin no. 39:81-96.

  74. ———. 1987. "Aristotelian Categorial Theory Viewed as a Theory of Componential Semantics." In Papers in the History of Linguistics: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences (ICHoLS III), Princeton, 19-23 August 1984, edited by Aarsleff, Hans, Kelly, L. G. and Niederehe, Hans-Josef, 53-64.

    "Many people throughout the centuries have been fascinated by Aristotle's theory of the categories. Here I would like to put forth the view that in terms of contemporary linguistic theory it may be regarded as a theory of componential semantics. This discussion will be primarily historical, tracing the development of the theory up to what may be considered its high point in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. The history of the theory will also stand as the main argument for the interpretation herein, in lieu of a detailed treatment of specific points in terms of current semantical theory.

    Following Lyons (1977:317-335), we can define a theory of componential semantics as a view that the meanings of words (lexemes) in languages exhibit structural relations within conceptual fields. Within these fields there are atomic sense components (SC's) into which meanings can be factorized.

    The 'basic', literal, semantical meanings within language are thus regarded as molecular structures built up from atomic SC's. Elsewhere (McMahon 1980b:147-148) I have taken the fairly standard position that Aristotle's categories are semantical. Here I want to add the contention that the ten Aristotelian categories are a suggested list of atomic SC's. and hence the theory of the categories would actually be the original theory of componential semantics within Western thought." (p. 53)


    Lyons, John. 1977. Semantics. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    McMahon, William E. 1980b. "Albert the Great on the Semantics of the Categories of Substance, Quantity, and Quality." Historiographia Linguistica, 7. No. 1/2, 145-157.

  75. ———. 2002. "The Medieval Sufficientiae: Attempts at a Definitive Division of the Categories." Proceedings of the Society for Medieval Logic and Metaphysics no. 2:12-25.

  76. ———. 2003. "Some non-standard views of the Categories." In La tradition médiévale des Catégories (XIIe-XVe siècles), edited by Biard, Joël and Rosier-Catach, Irène, 53-67. Louvain: Peeters.

  77. Newton, Lloyd A., ed. 2008. Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle's Categories. Leiden: Brill.

    Contents: Preface VII-VIII; Lloyd A. Newton: The Importance of Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle’s Categories 1; Michael Chase: The Medieval Posterity of Simplicius ’ Commentary on the Categories: Thomas Aquinas and al-Fārābī 9; Allan Bäck: Avicenna The Commentator 31; Bruno Tremblay: Albertus Magnus On the Subject of Aristotle’s Categories 73; Robert Andrews: Interconnected Literal Commentaries on the Categories in the Middle Ages 99; Paul Symington: Thomas Aquinas on Establishing the Identity of Aristotle’s Categories 119; Giorgio Pini: Reading Aristotle’s Categories as an Introduction to Logic: Later Medieval Discussions about Its Place in the Aristotelian Corpus 145; Martin Pickavé: Simon of Faversham on Aristotle’s Categories and The Scientia Praedicamentorum 183; Lloyd A. Newton: Duns Scotus’s Account of a Propter Quid Science of the Categories 221; Todd Bates: Fine-tuning Pini ’s Reading of Scotus ’s Categories Commentary 259; Giorgio Pini: How Is Scotus’s Logic Related to His Metaphysics? A Reply to Todd Bates 277; Alexander W. Hall: John Buridan: on Aristotle's Categories 295; Alessandro D. Conti: A Realist Interpretation of the Categories in the Fourteenth Century: The Litteralis sententia super Praedicamenta Aristotelis of Robert Alyngton 317; Robert Andrews: Thomas Maulevelt's Denial of Substance 347; Appendix: Thomas Maulevelt: Quaestiones super Praedicamenta: Quaestio 16 358; Alessandro D. Conti: Categories and Universals in the Later Middle Ages 369; Bibliography 411; List of Contributors 429; Index 433-439.

    "Originally, I planned to include essays on all three main philosophical traditions alive throughout the Middle Ages, namely, those written by Jewish, Christian and Islamic philosophers. Essays pertaining to the Jewish tradition, however, are noticeably absent due to the lack of contemporary scholarship in this area. Consequently, the preponderance of the remaining articles focuses mainly on Christian philosophers. The scope of the project has, however, stayed away from theological issues, even though discussions of the categories often have tremendous theological implications, especially concerning the doctrines of Transubstantiation and the Trinity. Consequently, the issues raised in the following essays are properly philosophical issues, not theological.

    What follows is a collection of fourteen original essays, all devoted to one or more medieval commentaries on Aristotle's Categories, written by a wide variety of philosophers from Europe, Canada, and the United States." (p. 2)

  78. Pattin, Adriaan. 1969. "Pour l'histoire du Commentaire sur les Catégories d'Aristote de Simplicius au Moyen." In Arts libéraux et philosophie au Moyen Age, 1073-1078. Paris: Vrin.

    Actes du Quatrième Congrés International de philosophie Médiévale. Université de montréal, Montréal, Canada 27 août - 2 septembre 1967.

  79. Perger, Mischa von. 2005. "Eriugenas Adaption der aristotelischen Kategorienlehre." In Logik und Theologie. Das Organon im Arabischen und im Lateinischen Mittelalter, edited by Perler, Dominik and Rudolph, Ulrich, 239-304. Leiden: Brill.

  80. Pinborg, Jan. 1975. "Petrus de Alvernia on the Categories." Cahiers de l'Institut du Moyen-Âge grec et latin no. 14:40-46.

  81. Pini, Giorgio. 2002. Categories and Logic in Duns Scotus. An Interpretation of Aristotle's Categories in the Late Thirteenth Century. Leiden: Brill.

  82. ———. 2003. "The Transcendentals of Logic: Thirteenth-Century Discussions on the Subject Matter of Aristotle's Categories." In Die Logik des Transzendentalen. Festschrift für Jan A. Aertsen, edited by Pickavé, Martin, 140-159. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  83. ———. 2003. "Scotus on deducing Aristotle's categories." In La tradition médiévale des Catégories (XIIe-XIVe siécles). XIIIe Symposium européen de logique et de sémantique médiévales. Avignon 6-10 juin 2000, edited by Biard, Joël and Rosier-Catach, Irène, 23-35. Louvain: Éditions Peeters.

  84. ———. 2005. "Scotus's Realist Conception of the Categories: His Legacy to Late Medieval Debates." Vivarium no. 43:63-110.

  85. Porro, Pasquale. 2020. "Keeping Language under Control: Late-Antique and Medieval Interpretations of the First Chapter of Aristotle’s Categories." In The Origin and Nature of Language and Logic: Perspectives in Medieval Islamic, Jewish, and Christian Thought, edited by Germann, Nadja and Harvey, Steven, 349-368. Turnhout: Brepols.

  86. Rijk, Lambertus Marie de. 1988. "'Categorization' as a Key Notion in Ancient and Medieval Semantics." Vivarium no. 26:1-18.

    "The aim of this paper is to argue for a twofold thesis: (a) for Aristotle the verb 'katêgorein' does not as such stand for statemental predication, let alone of the well-known `S is P' type, and (b) 'non-statemental predication' or `categorization' plays an important role in Ancient and Medieval philosophical procedure.

    1. Katêgorein and katêgoria in Aristotle

    Aristotle was the first to use the word `category' (katêgoria) as a technical term in logic and philosophy. It is commonly taken to mean `highest predicate' and explained in terms of statement-making. From the logical point of view categories are thus considered `potential predicates'.(*)


    1.3 Name giving ('categorization') as the key tool in the search for 'true substance'

    What Aristotle actually intends in his metaphysical discussions in the central books of his Metaphysics (Z-Th) is to discover the proper candidate for the name 'ousia'. According to Aristotle, the primary kind of 'being' or 'being as such' (to on hêi on) can only be found in 'being-ness' (ousia; see esp. Metaph. 1028b2). Unlike Plato, however, Aristotle is sure to find 'being as such' in the domain of things belonging to the everyday world. Aristotle's most pressing problem is to grasp the things' proper nature qua beings. In the search for an answer name-giving plays a decisive role: the solution to the problem consists in finding the most appropriate ('essential') name so as to bring everyday being into the discourse in such a way that precisely its 'beingness' is focussed upon.


    2. The use of 'praedicare' in Boethius

    The Greek phrase katêgorein ti kata tinos is usually rendered in Latin as praedicare aliquid de aliquo. The Latin formula primarily means `to say something of something else' (more precisely `of somebody'). Of course, the most common meaning of the Latin phrase is `to predicate something of something else in making a statement of the form S = P'. However, the verb praedicare, just as its Greek counterpart katêgorein, is used more than once merely in the sense of `naming' or `designating by means of a certain name', regardless of the syntactic role that name performs in a statement. In such cases praedicare stands for the act of calling up something under a certain name (designation), a procedure that we have labelled `categorization'. (...)

    Boethius' use of praedicare is quite in line with what is found in other authors. Along with the familiar use of the verb for statemental predication, Boethius also frequently uses praedicare in the sense of `naming' or `designating something under a certain name' whereby the use of the designating word in predicate position is, sometimes even explicitly, ruled out." pp. 1, 4, 9-10.

    (*) See L. M. de Rijk, The Categories as Classes of Names (= On Ancient and Medieval Semantics 3), in: Vivarium, 18 (1980), 1-62, esp. 4-7

  87. Rink, Alexandra. 2006. Aristoteles in Sankt Gallen: Notkers des Deutschen Kategorien-Bearbeitung (Kapitel 1-17) auf Grundlage der Übersetzung und des Kommentars des Boethius. Bern: Peter Lang.

  88. Scheu, Marina. 1944. The Categories of Being in Aristotle and St. Thomas. Washington: Catholic University of America Press.

  89. Senko, Wladyslaw. 1959. "Le Commentaire de Thomas Sutton sur les Catégories d'Aristote dans le ms. Q 3 de la bibliothèque de l'Université de Wroclaw." Mediaevalia Philosophica Polonorum no. 4:35-38.

  90. Synan, Edward A. 1967. "Master Peter Bradley on the Categories." Mediaeval Studies no. 29:273-327.

  91. Trego, Kristell. 2012. "Substance, sujet, acte. La première réception latine d'Aristote: Marius Victorinus et Boèce." Les Études philosophiques no. 101:233-256.

  92. Wippel, John F. 1987. "Thomas Aquinas's Derivation of the Aristotelian Categories (Predicaments)." Journal of the History of Philosophy no. 25:13-33.

Related pages