Theory and History of Ontology by Raul Corazzon | e-mail:

Table of Contents

For ease of reading, I made the following indexes (the function "Search" can be used to find a particular Author or Subject).

This page give the complete list of pages; "Ontologists" is a table with links to pages on the most important philosophers of the 19th and 20th centuries working on Ontology; for the links to the bibliographies see the Index of the Sections.

Detailed Index of the main sections

History of Ontology

Ancient Greek Ontology: Heraclitus, Parmenides and Plato

Heraclitus and Parmenides: Metaphysics of the One vs. Metaphysics of Being

Heraclitus and the Question of the One and the Many

Parmenides and the Question of Being in Greek Thought

Semantics and Predication in Plato's Dialogues

Plato's Parmenides and the Dilemma of Participation

Semantics, Predication, Truth and Falsehood in Plato's Sophist

Platonism Established: The “Genera of Being” in Plato' Sophist

Plato's Cratylus and the Problem of the “Correctness of Names”

Aristotle and the Science of Being qua Being

Aristotle and the Debate about the Subject Matter of First Philosophy

Aristotle's Definition of a Science of Being qua Being

The Rediscovery of the Corpus Aristotelicum and the Birth of Aristotelianism

Ancient Catalogues of Aristotle's Works:

Diogenes Laërtius, Lives, V 22-27

Hesychius and Ptolemy al-Garib

Listes Anciennes des Ouvrages d'Aristote :

Diogène Laërce, Vies V, 22-27

Hésychius de Milet et Ptolémée el-Garib

Greek ontology in the Hellenistic period


Theophrastus's Metaphysics: Debating with Aristotle

The Place of Metaphysics in the Ancient Divisions of Philosophy

Diogenes Laërtius

Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers by Diogenes Laërtius. A bibliography

Early Stoicism

The Stoic Doctrine of "Something" as Supreme Genus

Plotinus and the Beginning of Neoplatonism

Plotinus: the One and the Hierarchy of Being


Boethius' Metaphysics of Being and Goodness

Boethius' Metaphysics. An Annotated bibliography: First Part: A - J

Boethius' Metaphysics. An Annotated bibliography: Second Part: K - Z

Boethius' Contribution to the Quadrivium. Selected bibliography

The Neoplatonic Commentators

The Neoplatonic Commentators on Aristotle's Metaphysics

Symposia on Ancient Philosophy

Proceedings of the Symposium Platonicum, Aristotelicum, Hellenisticum

Ontology in the Middle Ages

Eriugena and the Neoplatonic Metaphysics in the Early Middle Ages

Eriugena: Dialectic and Ontology in the Periphyseon

The Arabic Rediscovery of Aristotle's Metaphysics

Pseudo-Aristotle in the Middle Ages: the Theology of Aristotle

Al-Kindi's Metaphysics: First Philosophy as the Study of God

Al-Farabi on the Scopes of the Aristotelian Metaphysics

Ibn Sina (Avicenna) on the Subject and the Object of Metaphysics

Averroes (Ibn Rushd) on the Divine as the Subject of Metaphysics

The 'Second Beginning' of Metaphysics

Introducing Aristotle in Middle Ages: the Latin translations of the Metaphysics

A Neoplatonic Metaphysics: the Liber de Causis

The Place of Metaphysics in the Medieval Classification of Sciences

Thomas Aquinas Doctrine of the Act of Being (Actus Essendi)

Duns Scotus: Univocity of Being and the Subject of Metaphysics

Properties of Being: the Medieval Doctrine of the Transcendentals

Metaphysics or Ontology? The Debate about the Subject-Matter of First Philosophy

Ontology in Modern and Contemporary philosophy

Rise and Fall of Ontology in the Modern Era from Suárez to Kant

Birth of a New Science: the History of Ontology from Suárez to Kant

Jacob Lorhard (1561-1609): The Creator of the Term "Ontologia"

Bibliography of the Ontologists from 16th to 18th Centuries:

Francisco Suárez on Metaphysics as the Science of Real Beings

The Philosophy of René Descartes: An Overview

René Descartes. Bibliographie Chronologique et Annotée (Première Partie: 1616-1640)

René Descartes. Bibliographie Chronologique et Annotée (Deuxième Partie: 1641-1650)

Descartes: Biographies, Bibliographies, Dictionnaires, Lexiques

Descartes. Bibliographies, Concordances, Dictionaries, Lexica

Bibliographie des études en français sur la philosophie de Descartes

Bibliography of the studies in English on Descartes' philosophy

Descartes' Ontology: From the Rules for the Direction of the Mind to the Meditations on First Philosophy

Bibliographie sur René Descartes et la recherche de la mathesis universalis

Christian Wolff's Ontology: Existence as "Complement of Possibility"

Kant from the Critique of Metaphysics to Transcendental Philosophy

The Rediscovery of Ontology in Contemporary Thought

(under construction)

Theory of Ontology

Definitions of Ontology by Leading Philosophers

What is Ontology? - First Part (From Christian Wolff to Edmund Husserl)

What is Ontology? - Second Part (From Nicolai Hartmann to the Present Time)

The Vocabulary of Ontology

Introductory remarks (Origin and development of some fundamental concepts with a selection of the most relevant texts)

Being (Linguistic and philosophical perspectives)

The Problem of Nonbeing. History of Nonexistence

Existence (Definitions from some leading philosophers)

Substance (The evolution of the concept from Ancient Greeks to Modern Times)

Mathesis Universalis: the Search for a Universal Science

Language and Ontology

Linguistic Relativism (Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis) vs. Universal Grammar

Universal Ontology vs. Ontological Relativity

Semiotics and Ontology

The Rediscovery of John Poinsot (John of St. Thomas)

Modern Theories of Predication

Existence and Predication:

The Frege-Russell 'Is' Ambiguity Thesis

Language as Calculus vs. Language as Universal Medium (two traditions in 20th century philosophy)

Ontological topics in the history of philosophy

History of Truth in Western Philosophy

Aletheia in the Ancient Greek Thought. General Introduction

Pre-Philosophical Concepts of Truth

Aletheia dans la Pensée Grecque d'Homère à l'Âge Hellenistique



Plato's Doctrine of Truth

Aristotle's Definition of Truth





Veritas in the Middle Ages from Augustine to Paul of Venice

Theories of Truth in Modern Era from Descartes to Kant

Martin Heidegger on Aletheia (Truth) as Unconcealment

History of the Doctrine of Categories

The Doctrine of Categories from an Historical Perspective. Introduction

Semantics and Ontological Analysis in Aristotle's Categories

The Stoic Doctrine of Supreme Genera (Categories)

Plotinus' Criticism of the Doctrine of Categories (Enneads VI, 1-3)

Ancient Greek Commentaries on Aristotle's Categories

Eriugena, Periphyseon Book I: Aristotelian Logic and Categories

Latin Medieval Commentators on Aristotle's Categories

Selected bibliography on the Latin Medieval Commentators

The Problem of Universals from the Antiquity to Middle Ages

Universals in Antiquity and Middle Ages

Peter Abelard and the Rise of Nominalism

The Realist Ontology of John Duns Scotus

The Nominalist Ontology of William of Ockham

Ontologists of the 19th and 20th centuries

Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848) Contributions to Logic and Ontology Critical judgments, excerpts from his works, bibliography of critical studies

Franz Brentano (1838-1917) Ontology and His Immanent Realism Excerpts and bibliography of his works, of the English translations and of the most relevant critical studies

Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914) Ontology and Semiotics. The Theory of Categories Bibliography of his writings and about his conception of semiotics and the theory of categories

Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) Ontology: Being, Existence, and Truth Excerpts from texts, studies and bibliography on his conceptions of being, existence and truth

Alexius Meinong (1853-1920) Theory of Objects Bibliography of his works (original edition and English translations) and of the most relevant critical studies

Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) Formal Ontology and Transcendental Logic Editions of the works in German and English, bibliography on formal ontology

Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) (under construction)

Kazimierz Twardowski (1866-1938) The Content and Object of Presentations Bibliography of his works and of the most relevant critical studies

Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) His Ontological Development Bibliography of studies on his ontological development

Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950) Levels of Reality and Ontology) Bibliography of his works and of the most relevant critical studies

Adolf Reinach (1883-1917) States of Affairs (Sachverhalt) and Negative Judgments Bibliography of the works and translations; selection of the most relevant critical studies

Stanislaw Leśniewski (1886-1939) Logical Systems: Protothetic, Ontology, Mereology Bibliography of his works and of the most relevant critical studies

Tadeusz Kotarbinski (1886-1981) From Reism to Pansomatism Bibliography of his works and of the most relevant critical studies

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) The Ontology of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus Bibliography and critical judgments about the ontology of the Tractatus

Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) Gesamtausgabe (Collected Works) List of the works in the German edition

Truth (Alethéia) as Unconcealment. His conception of Truth as Unconcealment in the Greek thought

The History of Metaphysics as Ontotheology

Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970) (under construction)

Roman Ingarden (1893-1970) The Realism / Idealism Debate Bibliography of the works in German and of the translations; selection of the most relevant critical studies

Charles Hartshorne (1897-2000) (under construction)

Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901-1972) (under construction)

Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) (under construction)

Gustav Bergmann (1906-1987) Ontological Realism Selected bibliography with abstracts

Nelson Goodman (1906-1998) (under construction)

Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000) (under construction)

Arthur Norman Prior (1914-1969) (under construction)

Justus Buchler (1914-1991) The Metaphysics of Natural Complexes Selected bibliography

Roman Suszko (1919-1979) The non-Fregean Logics Selected bibliography with abstracts (only the publications in English)

Mario Bunge (1919-2020) Selected bibliography on the Scientific Philosophy of Mario Bunge Bibliography of his works and of the most relevant critical studies

Fred Sommers (1923-2014) on the Logic of Natural Language Complete Annotated bibliography

Hector-Neri Castañeda (1924-1991) (under construction)

The Moderate Realism of D. M. (David Malet) Armstrong (1926-2014)

Boguslaw Wolniewicz on the Formal Ontology of Situations (1927) Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, Warsaw University

Reinhardt Grossmann (1931-2010) The Ontology of Categories

The Ontological Realism of Panayot Butchvarov (1933) Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Iowa

The Conceptual Realism of Nino Cocchiarella (1933) Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Indiana University

Richard Sylvan [born Richard Routley] (1935-1996) Nonexistent Objects Selected bibliography with abstracts

George Englebretsen's Contribution to the Rediscovery of Traditional Formal Logic Professor Emeritus at Bishop's University, Canada

Jon Barwise (1942-2000) (under construction)

Jerzy Perzanowski (1943-2009) Modal Logics, Ontology and Ontologics Complete bibliography of the works in English with abstracts

Kit Fine (1946) and the Ontology of Modal Actualism, Silver Professor of Philosophy and Mathematics, New York University

Complete and Annotated bibliography 1970 - 1988

Complete and Annotated bibliography 1989 - 1996

Complete and Annotated bibliography 1997 - 2016

Kit Fine. Annotated bibliography of the studies on His Philosophy

Liliana Albertazzi (1947): Ontology and Psychology (1947) Principal Investigator at the University of Trento Centre for the Mind and Brain (CIMeC)

Brian Cantwell Smith On the Origins of Objects Professor of information, computer science, and philosophy at University of Toronto

Historians of philosophy

Jan A. Aertsen

John P. Doyle

Jean École

Joseph S. Freedman

Édouard Jeauneau

Giorgio Tonelli


Historians of logic (On the website "History of Logic")

E. J. Ashworth

L. M. de Rijk

Mauro Nasti de Vincentis

Wilhelm Risse