The best introduction in English to Hartmann's thought are: W. H. Werkmeister, Nicolai Hartmann's New Ontology (1990) and R. Poli,
C. Scognamiglio, F. Tremblay (eds.), The Philosophy of Nicolai Hartmann (2011).
Albertazzi, Liliana. 2001. "The Roots of Ontics." Axiomathes.An International Journal in Ontology and Cognitive Systems no.
According to Hartmann's analysis, the psychological level concerns the following aspects of psychic acts:
(i) The mode of being of psychic acts.
(ii) The nature of the correlates of these acts.
(iii) The relationship of psychic acts with the structures of the physical and/or biological world that underlie them.
(iv) The non-rationalizable residue which makes it a paradigm example of fundamental ontic connection.
Some of these aspects are highly problematic. As Hartmann points out, the difficulty of understanding what types of entities psychic acts are
is twofold, because:
(i) They do not appear to us objectively and they are not given to us as objects unless modified in reflection and memory once their presence
is no longer actual, with all the `objectual' modifications that the situation brings about.
(ii) Sometimes they are states that are not experienced immediately and are unconscious.
Because of the framework in which it is inserted, Hartmann's ontology of psychic acts can be considered a further development of Brentanian
descriptive psychology." p. 300-301.
Allen, Michael. 1981. "Nicolai Hartmann's Anthropology of Knowledge." Journal of the British Society for Phenemenology no.
The article is an analysis of Hartmann's efforts to argue for the relevance of anthropological considerations in the context of
epistemological realism. It concludes that Hartmann's arguments against Husserl's refusal to admit anthropological considerations into phenomenology are
successful; but that realism must be redefined differently than Hartmann would define it. The article also concludes that the factor of "human interest"
(Habermas) does not undermine the realist position."
Atten, Mark van. 2001. "Gödel, Mathematics, and Possible Worlds." Axiomathes.An International Journal in Ontology and Cognitive
Systems no. 12:355-363.
Bar-On, Abraham Zvie. 1987. The Categories and the Principle of Coherence. Whitehead's Theory of Categories in Historical
Perspective . Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.
Chapter IV: The non-speculative way: Nicolai Hartmann - pp. 121-150.
Barone, Francesco. 1948. L'ontologia Di N. Hartmann . Torino: Edizioni di Filosofia.
———. 1957. Nicolai Hartmann Nella Filosofia Del Novecento . Torino: Edizioni di Filosofia.
Baumanns, Peter. 1966. "Der Kritische Weg in Der Philosophie Nicolai Hartmann." Kant Studien no. 57:296-308.
———. 1968. "La Méthode Des Apories Dans La Philosophie Dans Nicolai Hartmann." Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale no.
Beck, Heinrich. 1961. Möglichkeit Und Notwendigkeit. Eine Entfaltung Der Ontologischen Modalitätenlehre Im Ausgang Von Nicolai
Hartmann . Pullach bei München: Verlag Berchmanskolleg.
Beck, Lewis White. 1942. "Nicolai Hartmann's Criticism of Kant's Theory of Knowledge." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research no.
This article is a historical narrative and philosophical evaluation of Nicolai Hartmann's articles and book Grundzüge einer Metaphysik
der Erkenntnis (1925) in which he gradually distanced himself from Kant and from Marburg neo-Kantianism."
Revised and shortened version in: Alois Joh. Buch (ed.) - Nicolai Hartmann 1882-1982 - pp. 46-58.
———. 1944. "Concerning Landmann's 'Nicolai Hartmann and Phenomenology'." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research no. 4:592-594.
Becker, Oskar. 1934. "Das Formale System Der Ontologischen Modalitäten (Betrachtungen Zu Hartmanns Werk Möglichkeit Und Wirklichkeit
)." Blätter für Deutsche Philosophie no. 16:387-422.
Blystone, Jasper. 1982. "Nicolai Hartmann's Homo Ontologicus." In Nicolai Hartmann 1882-1982, 59-69. Bonn: Bouvier Verlag Herbert
Bodeus, Richard. 1984. "The Problem of Freedom According to Nicolai Hartmann." International Philosophical Quarterly no.
Breil, Reinhold. 1996. Kritik Und System. Die Grundproblematik Der Ontologie Nicolai Hartmanns in Transzendentalphilosophischer
Sicht . Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.
Breton, Stanislas. 1948. "La Théorie De La Modalité Dans L'ontologie De Nicolai Hartmann (Première Partie)." Rassegna di Scienze
Filosofiche no. 2/3:20-49.
———. 1948. "La Théorie De La Modalité Dans L'ontologie De Nicolai Hartmann (Deuxième Partie)." Rassegna di Scienze Filosofiche no.
———. 1954. "Le Problème De L'être Spirìtuel." Giornale di Metafisica :397-438.
———. 1962. L'être Spirituel. Recherches Sur La Philosophie De Nicolai Hartmann . Lyon: Vitte.
———. 1963. "Ontology and Ontologies: The Contemporary Situation." International Philosophical Quarterly no. 3:339-369.
———. 1969. Philosophie Et Mathématique Chez Proclus . Paris: Beauchesne.
Translated from German by Geneviève de Pesloüan.
Suivi de ' Principes philosophiques des mathématiques ' d'apres le Commentaire de Proclus aux deux premiers livres des Eléments
d'Euclide par Nicolai Hartmann.
Buch, Alois, ed. 1982. Nicolai Hartmann 1882-1982 . Bonn: Bouvier Verlag Herbert Grundmann.
Mit einer Einleitung von Josef Stallmach und einer Bibliographie der seit 1964 uber Hartmann erschienenen Arbeiten.
Cadwallader, Eva Hauel. 1984. Searchlight on Values: Nicolai Hartmann's Twentieth-Century Value Platonism . Washington: University
press of America.
This critique and defense of an updated value Platonism argues that Hartmann's ethics has been undeservedly neglected because of "guilt by
association" with discredited positions it only superficially resembles. After examining Plato's motives for his value Platonism, and discussing G. E. Moore,
the author argues that Hartmann's theory rejects both naive value Platonism and dogmatic absolutism while also avoiding vicious Skepticism. Pluralism,
fallibilism, and pragmatism are invoked in defending an updated version of "revised value Platonism"."
———. 1984. "The Continuing Relevance of Nicolai Hartmann's Theory of Value." Journal of Value Inquiry no. 18:113-121.
This paper argues that Hartmann's much-neglected value theory has practical relevance for understanding the current American value
polarization. First, ten of Hartmann's most permanent
contributions to axiology are outlined. next, these are related to work by psychologists and others (Horney, Maslow, Kohlberg, Benedict,
Fromm, Jung, Yankelovich). Third, the heuristic value of
Hartmann's key notion of "the bi-polarity of ethics" is proposed as useful for understanding today's clash between "the moral majority" and
"the new morality"."
Cantoni, Remo. 1972. Che Cosa Ha Veramente Detto Hartmann . Roma: Ubaldini.
Cicovacki, Predrag. 2001. "New Ways of Ontology - the Ways of Interaction." Axiomathes.An International Journal in Ontology and Cognitive
Systems no. 12:159-170.
Although Nicolai Hartmann made significant contributions to virtually all areas and disciplines of philosophy, his first and deepest love was
ontology. Part of Hartmann's fascination with ontology was due to the fact that at his time the previously considered philosophia prima was
practically non-existent. As he remarked, ontology fell in a deep sleep after Christian Wolff. (*) Hartmann certainly tried to awake the sleeping giant and
restore its faded glory. Despite his ingenious efforts, ontology is still mostly absent from the philosophical scene. My paper will address some of the
questions that this state of affairs gives rise to: Why did Hartmann's prodigious efforts to rebuild ontology not have lasting effects? Why was it that his
"new ways of ontology" did not revitalize the old discipline? Could it be that Hartmann's own way of presenting what is new about his ontology made a confusing
impression about the real relationship of the old and the new?
Since I have the highest regard for Hartmann's work and nevertheless believe that his own presentation is - at least partially - responsible
for possible misunderstandings, I will here attempt to explain his novel contribution in a way different from that employed by him. My strategy will be as
follows. In section I, I will present Hartmann's criticism of the old ontology. Section II will bring a brief sketch of his main contributions to ontology.
Finally, in section III, I will attempt to clarify Hartmann's "new ways of ontology" by using the model of interaction. If this conception of reality as
an interactive process is indeed useful and illuminating, it will both highlight the novelty of his approach and indicate the direction in
which this new ontology should be further developed."
(*) Zur Grundlegung der Ontologie (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1948, 4th ed.), p. XI.
———. 2014. The Analysis of Wonder. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Nicolai Hartmann . London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Contents: Chronological Table; Introduction: Does Hartmann Matter?; Part I: Being. I.1 Philosophical Method; I.2 Being as Being; I.3
Modifications of Being; I.4 Strata of Real Being; I.5 Categories of Real Being; I.6 Categories of Being and Categories of Cognition; I.7. Ontology of
Cognition; I.8 Critique of Intellectualism; Part II: Values. II.1 Nature of Values; II.2 Moral Values in General; II.3 Four Fundamental Moral Values; II.4 Four
Forms of Love; II.5 Aesthetic Object and Aesthetic Act; II.6 Aesthetic Values; II.7 Truth in Art;
II.8 Sublime; II.9 Critique of Moralism; Part III: Personality. III.1 The Realm of Real Being and the Realm of Values; III.2 Personality as a
Value; III.3 Pseudo, Spurious and Genuine Personality; III.4 Fulfillment of Personality; Conclusion: Hartmann’s New Ways of Philosophy; Bibliography of
Hartmann’s Works; Index.
Collins, James. 1945. "The Neo-Scholastic Critique of Nicolai Hartmann." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research no. 6:109-132.
This is a report on the reception of Hartmann's epistemology and ontology by German and Italian Scholastics (1920-40). They appreciated his
central attraction to the problem of being, his opening of human cognition to being, and his effort to transcend both idealism and naive realism. But realism
can include a critical recognition of the transcendence factor in knowing and valuing, as well as a constant striving with the limits and perspectives of man's
study of being. These are marks of human finitude rather than of irrationality in being."
Corradini, Antonella. 1985. "La Struttura Logica Delle Modalità Nel Pensiero Di N. Hartmann." Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica
Csepregi, Gabor. 2001. "The Relevance of Nicolai Hartmann's Musical Aesthetics." Axiomathes.An International Journal in Ontology and
Cognitive Systems no. 12:339-354.
Da Re, Antonio. 2001. "Objective Spirit and Personal Spirit in Hartmann's Philosophy." Axiomathes.An International Journal in Ontology
and Cognitive Systems no. 12:317-326.
In order to discuss the theme of the relation between the personal and objective spirit in Hartmann's work appropriately, it is necessary at
the outset to place his reflections within the context of the wide debate which developed within German philosophy at the beginning of the twentieth century.
As is well known, the Hegelian concept of the objective spirit was taken up and reformulated by historicism, in particular by Wilhelm Dilthey, apart from other
writers who in various forms had drawn it towards neo-Kantianism (Georg Simmel, Ernst Cassirer). In this paper I hope to be able to highlight the
characteristic traits of Hartmann's philosophy of the spirit through a critical comparison with the thoughts of Hegel and those of Dilthey. For this reason,
the first part of this paper will be in the form of a brief presentation of the theory of the objective spirit, as is found in the writings of Hegel and
Dilthey. In the second part I will summarise the main traits of Hartmann's theory. In the third and last part, I will highlight the critical elements proposed
by Hartmann in comparison to Dilthey and above all to Hegel; in so doing Hartmann's innovative contribution to humanist and personalistic thought and
philosophy will emerge. This can be summarised thus: (1) the refusal of individualism and the recognition of the existence of super-personal relations of the
objective spirit and of the objectivated spirit, (2) the vindication of the autonomy and freedom of the human person."
Dahlberg, Wolfgang. 1983. Sein Und Zeit Bei Nicolai Hartmann . Frankfurt am Main: Verlag A.V.I.V.A.
D'Anna, Giuseppe. 2009. Nicolai Hartmann. Dal Conoscere All'essere . Brescia: Morcelliana.
———. 2013. Realismi. Nicolai Hartmann «Al Di Là» Di Realismo E Idealismo . Brescia: Morcelliana.
Djeong-Uk, Seo. 1993. Logik Und Metaphysik Der Erkenntnis: Kritischer Vergleich Von Hermann Cohens Und Nicolai Hartmanns Philosophischen
Grundpositionen . Frankfurt am Main: Haag & Herchen.
Dong-Huyn, Son. 1986. Die Seinsweise Des Objektivierten Geistes. Eine Untersuchung Im Anschluss an Nicolai Hartmanns Problematik Des
"Geistigen Seins" . Bern: Peter Lang.
Inhalt: U.a. Ontologische Bestimmung des Geistes in Schichten- und Sphärenlehre N. Hartmanns; Grundformen des geistigen Seins; Ontische
Struktur der Objektivation; Seinsweise des objektivierten Geistes.
Feucht, Roland. 1992. Die Neoontologie Nicolai Hartmanns Im Licht Der Evolutuonären Erkenntnistheorie . Regensburg: S. Roderer
Feyerabend, Paul K. 1963. "Professor Hartmann's Philosophy of Nature." Ratio no. 5:91-106.
Forsche, Joachim Bernhard. 1965. Zur Philosophie Nicolai Hartmanns. Die Problematik Von Kategorialer Schichtung Und
Realdetermination . Meisenheim am Glan: Hain.
Gamba, Alessandro. 2001. "A Cinquant'anni Dalla 'Nuova Ontologia' Di Nicolai Hartman." Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica no.
———. 2004. In Principio Era Il Fine. Ontologia E Teleologia in Nicolai Hartmann . Milano: Vita e Pensiero.
Gamp, Rainer. 1973. Die Interkategoriale Relation Und Die Dialektische Methode in Der Philosophie Nicolai Hartmanns . Bonn:
Guidetti, Luca. 1999. La Realtà E La Coscienza. Studio Sulla Metafisica Della Conoscenza Di Nicolai Hartmann . Macerata:
Harich, Wolfgang. 2000. Nicolai Hartmann. Leben, Werk, Wirkung . Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.
———. 2004. Nicolai Hartmann - Grösse Und Grenzen: Versuch Einer Marxistischen Selbstverständigung . Würzburg: Königshausen &
Heimsoeth, Heinz. 1952. "Zur Geschichte Der Kategorienlehre." In Nicolai Hartmann. Der Denker Und Sein Weik, edited by Heimsoeth,
Heinz and Hein, Robert, 144-172. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Heimsoeth, Heinz, and Hein, Robert, eds. 1952. Nicolai Hartmann. Der Denker Und Sein Werk . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck &
Funfzehn Abhandlungen mit einer Bibliographie (Fifteenth essys with a Bibliography).
Hein, Robert. 1961. "Nicolai Hartmann: A Personal Sketch." Personalist no. 42:469-486.
Hülsmann, Heinz. 1959. Die Methode in Der Philosophie Nicolai Hartmanns . Düsseldorf: L. Schwann.
Hüntelmann, Rafael. 2000. Möglich Ist Nur Das Wirkliche: Nicolai Hartmanns Modalontologie Des Realen Seins . Dettelbach: J.H.
James, Helen. 1960. "Nicolai Hartmann's Study of Human Personality." New Scholasticism no. 34:204-233.
Johansson, Ingvar. 2001. "Hartmann's Nondeductive Materalism, Superimposition, and Supervenience." Axiomathes.An International Journal in
Ontology and Cognitive Systems no. 12:195-215.
Nicolai Hartmann's approach to philosophy was both aporetic and systematic. He stressed that philosophy contains genuine but probably
insoluble problems at the same time as he was working on an ontological system. Also, he meant that philosophical-ontological systems always have to take the
knowledge progress of science into account. In philosophy, this has been, and still is, an unusual combination of views. Hartmann might seem to be completely
at odds with a lot of different philosophical traditions; analytic philosophy being one of them. However, today, that is not really the case. In relation to
analytic metaphysics there are several overlapping problem areas. This paper is concerned with one such area, the mind- body problem. Iii particular, I will
relate Hartmann's view that mind is superimposed on matter to the view of some analytic philosophers that mind is supervenient on matter.
Both sides, and many other philosophers interested in the mind-body problem, have something to learn from such a confrontation."
Kanthack, Katharina. 1962. Nicolai Hartmann Und Das Ende Der Ontologie . Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Kraenzel, Frederick. 1984. "Nicolai Hartmann's Doctrine of Ideal Values: An Examination." Journal of Value Inquiry no.
This article evaluates Hartmann's claims that values are independent of our judgment of value, that they are independent of the real world,
and that they are a multiplicity of ideal forms. By
examining our moral consciousness, the article concludes that some values have ideal necessity. However, it is only a conditioned,
hypothetical necessity, and the number of different ideal values is very limited."
Kuhn, Helmut. 1951. "Nicolai Hartmann's Ontology." Philosophical Quarterly no. 1:289-318.
Landmann, Michael. 1943. "Nicolai Hartmann and Phenomenology." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research no. 3:393-423.
Larsen, Allan W. 1982. "The Problem of Freedom in the Philosophy of Nicolai Hartmann." In Nicolai Hartmann 1882-1982, 184-195. Bonn:
Bouvier Verlag Herbert Grundmann.
Lörcher, Wolfgang. 1972. Ästhetik Als Ausfaltung Der Ontologie . Meisenheim am Glan: A. Hain.
Lotz, Johannes B. 1982. "Zwei Wege Der Ontologie. Nicolai Hartmann Und Martin Heidegger." In Nicolai Hartmann 1882-1982, 208-222.
Bonn: Bouvier Verlag Herbert Grundmann.
Lukács, Gyorgy. 1984. Zur Ontologie Des Gesellchaftlichen Seins . Darmstadt: Luchterhand.
Vol. I, Chapter II. Nicolai Hartmanns Vorstoss zu einer echten Ontologie - pp. 421-467, in: Werke - Vol. 13, edited by
The first edition of this volume was the Italian translation: G. Lukács - Per l'ontologia dell'essere sociale - Vol. I - a cura di
Alberto Scarponi. Milano, Editori Riuniti, 1976 (Capitolo II. L'impulso di N. Hartmann i direzione di una vera ontologia - pp. 111-162).
Makota, Janina. 1986. "Nicolai Hartmann's and Roman Ingarden's Philosophy of Man." Reports on Philosohy no. 10:69-79.
Maliandi, Ricardo-Gulielmo. 1966. Wertobjektivität Und Realitatserfahrung Mit Besonderer Berücksichtigung Der Philosophie Nicolai
Hartmanns . Bonn: H. Bouvier u. Co. Verlag.
Matteo, Armando. 2000. "Il Cammino Speculativo Del Giovane Hartmann: Dalla Logica Dell'essere All'ontologia Della Logica." Sapienza
Mayer, Emmanuel. 1952. Die Objektivität Der Werterkenntis Bei Nicolai Hartmann . Meisenheim/Glan: Westkulturverlag A. Hain.
Meyer, Gerbert. 1962. Modalanalyse Und Determinationsproblem. Zur Kritik Nicolai Hartmanns an Der Aristotelischen Physis .
Meisenheim am Glan: A. Hain.
Millán Puelles, Antonio. 1947. El Problema Del Ente Ideal. Un Examen a Través De Husserl Y Hartmann . Madrid: Consejo Superior de
Segunda Parte Ontología de la idealidad: Sección segunda. La teoría de la idealidad en Hartmann. Capítulo 7 La idealidad en el ámbito
matemático; Capítulo 8 El ser en sí de los objetos ideales.
Mohanty, Jitendra Nath. 1957. Nicolai Hartmann and Alfred North Whitehead. A Study in Recent Platonism . Calcutta: Progressive
Contents: Preface V; Hermann Wein: Foreword IX; Introduction XV-XL; Chapter I: Nicolai Hartmann's Philosophy of Ideal Being 1; Appendix:
Nicolai Hartmann on the Ontological Status of Logic 41; Chapter II: A. N. Whitehead's Doctrine of Eternal Objects 45; Appendix I: Whitehead's Theory of
Propositions 102; Appendix II: George Santayana on the Nature of 'Essences' 108; Chapter III: Nicolai Hartmann and Alfred North Whitehead: a Critical and
Comparative study 112; Appendix: On the Ontological Status of Logic: The Problem 190; Chapter IV: Conclusions 194; Bibliography 211-214.
"The present work proposes to institute a critical comparison between the philosophies of `ideal being' of two distinguished contemporary
philosophers who come from very different philosophical traditions and had, in their lifetime, little to do with each other. Owing to the fact that the
philosophers are eminently interested in the nature of the real actual world, we hope that the proposed study may make a contribution towards an evaluation of
the meaning, nature, and role of the so-called 'ideal being'. We may even say that it may contribute towards an understanding of the surviving
function of the so-called Platonic Ideas today. `Platonism' is an expression that is often used to name the most diverse currents of thought and which,
therefore, has contributed towards much confusion. But, if it is not the name but the content of a philosophy that matters, we may as well name the aspect of
philosophy which comes up for consideration in this work as 'Platonic'. The name need not lead to any prejudgment; but sometimes by its historical
associations, it helps us to isolate an area of problem. We do not intend to insist on this name except for the sake of such convenience.
The very fact that today such a problem is considered as living requires justification. Positivism and pragmatism, analysis and logical
empiricism, philosophies of `change' and existentialism, all these diverse currents of thought agree in having declared all sorts of Platonism dead for ever.
But, is it really so? Are the problems which Plato tried to tackle solved once for ever? Or, have they been declared, once for ever, as pseudo-problems? We
grant that much illusion has been removed, that quite a lot of problems might have been shown to be only pseudo-problems. But making allowance for such modern
developments in philosophy, is it not still possible to ask: how best can we understand Plato today?
When we find two contemporary thinkers, alive to the currents of modern thought, still, in some sense or other, recognising the importance of
many of Plato's thoughts today, the presumption is that the question can be asked." (pp. XV-XVI).
———. 1963. "Remarks on Nicolai Hartmann's Modal Doctrine." Kant Studien no. 54:181-187.
Reprinted as Chapter XII in: J. M. Mohanty - Phenomenology and ontology - The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 1970 pp. 129-137.
———. 1970. Phenomenology and Ontology . The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Chapter XI. A recent criticism of the foundations of Nicolai Hartmann's ontology pp. 115-128; Chapter XII. Remarks on Nicolai
Hartmann's modal doctrine pp. 129-137.
———. 1997. "Nicolai Hartmann's Phenomenological Ontology." In Phenomenology. Between Essentialism and Transcendental Philosophy,
25-31. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
Morgenstern, Martin. 1992. Nicolai Hartmann: Grundlinien Einer Wissenschaftlich Orientierten Philosophie . Tübingen: Francke
———. 1997. Nicolai Hartmann Zur Einführung . Hamburg: Junius Verlag.
Möslang, Alois. 1964. Finalität. Ihre Problematik in Der Philosophie Nicolai Hartmanns . Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätsverlag.
Münzhuber, Joseph. 1943. "Nicolai Hartmann Kategorienlehre." Zeitschrift für Deutsche Philosophie no. 9:187-216.
Nosbüsch, Johannes. 1982. "Nicolai Hartmanns Lehre Vom Idealen Sein." In Nicolai Hartmann 1882-1982, 238-251. Bonn: Bouvier Verlag
Oakeley, Hilda. 1935. "Professor Nicolai Hartmann's Concept of Objective Spirit." Mind no. 44:39-57.
Oberer, Ariolf. 1965. Vom Problem Des Objektivierten Geistes. Ein Beitrag Zur Theorie Der Konkreten Subjektivität Im Ausgang Von Nicolai
Hartmann . Köln: Kölner Universitätsverlag.
Patzig, Günther, ed. 1982. Symposium Zum Gedanken an Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950) . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Peruzzi, Alberto. 2001. "Hartmann's Stratified Reality." Axiomathes.An International Journal in Ontology and Cognitive Systems no.
Which aspects of `critical ontology' can provide effective orientation when confronted by the difficulties inherent to the opposition of
logic- inspired philosophy vs phenomenology? Given the cyclical swing between the metaphysical realism of all-embracing Systems and the anti-realistic
biases of relativism, does Hartmann offer a really satisfactory equilibrium-point? Is it still possible to construct a philosophical cosmology consistent with
the natural sciences, while avoiding positivistic reduction of philosophy to analysis of language? How can we assign philosophy a task that goes beyond the
meta-theoretical and the epistemological, while renouncing the temptation to adopt the view-from-nowhere? What about the project of a `new' realism that
refrains from positing Absolutes and yet admits the existence of perennially open problems, on which the advances of scientific knowledge seem to have little
or no effect at all? How to anchor categorial analysis if not by connecting it to the advances of social, cognitive and natural sciences?"
Peterson, Keith R. 2012. "An Introduction to Nicolai Hartmann’s Critical Ontology." Axiomathes.An International Journal in Ontology and
Cognitive Systems no. 22:291-314.
Nicolai Hartmann contributed significantly to the revitalization of the discipline of ontology in the early twentieth century. Developing a
systematic, post-Kantian critical ontology ‘this side’ of idealism and realism, he subverted the widespread impression that philosophy must either exhaust
itself in foundationalist epistemology or engage in system-building metaphysical excess. This essay provides an introduction to Hartmann’s approach in light of
the recent translation of his early essay ‘How is Critical Ontology Possible?’ (1923) In it Hartmann criticizes both the pretensions of epistemology as well as
the principal errors of classical ontology, and he proposes a series of correctives that lead to his development of a highly original and elaborate stratified
categorial ontology. This introduction explains the most important errors of the ‘old’ ontology, his correctives to them, and further fleshes out these
correctives with reference to his mature ontological work."
Philipse, Herman. 2001. "What Is a Natural Conception of the World?"International Journal of Philosophical Studies no.
Continental philosophers such as Heidegger and Nicolai Hartmann and analytic philosophers such as Ryle, Strawson, and Jennifer Hornsby may be
interpreted as using competing intellectual strategies within the framework of one and the same research programme, the programme of developing a natural
conception of the world. They all argue that the Manifest Image of the world (to use Sellars's terminology) is compatible with, or even more fundamental than,
the Scientific Image. A comparative examination of these strategies shows that Hartmann's strategy of stratification is superior to those of Heidegger, Ryle,
Pichler, Hans. 1952. "Die Wiedergeburt Der Ontologie." In Nicolai Hartmann. Der Denker Und Sein Weik, edited by Heimsoeth, Heinz and
Hein, Robert, 144-172. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Poli, Roberto. 1998. "Levels." Axiomathes.An International Journal in Ontology and Cognitive Systems no. 9:197-211.
It is plain that the problem of the levels or layers of a work of art is an important part of any theory of the aesthetic object. In other
words, what I wish to state clearly from the outset is that of the two components that select the field of interest - that of the object, and that of its
aesthetic valence - reference to the object arranges reference to its aesthetic valence. Put otherwise, the theme of the aesthetic object is a particular
subdivision of ontology - a subdivision, moreover, which may prove fundamental, shedding light on several aspects of the overall framework of ontology. This
was pointed by Nicolai Hartmann, when in the introduction to Zur Grundlegung der Ontologie - one of his main ontological works - he asserted that "the
problematic [of art] belongs to the area
of problems in which the ontological problem is rooted." Evidently, when matters are viewed from this point of view, that part of aesthetics
which addresses the problem of the aesthetic object may yield results of relevance to more general ontological reflection as well.
Complementary to investigation by objects is investigation by acts. In this case, however, it becomes more difficult to develop the theme
that I wish to discuss here, namely that of levels or layers. Hartmann again points out: "the aesthetics of today still concentrates mainly on analysis of the
act, and this is why the stratification relationship, although it has often been noted, is not yet familiar to it" ([Hartmann Das Problem des Geistingen
Seins 1933], p. 565). The perspective to which I allude was first outlined by the phenomenologist Geiger, who not coincidentally sought to develop a form
of phenomenological reduction which mainly involved objects and their structures. This, as we know, was a form of reduction different from the, so to speak,
more classically phenomenological ones elaborated by Husserl in order to bring out the structures and operations of consciousness. Moreover, for the purposes
of this paper, the decision to give priority to the perspective of the object becomes well-nigh obligatory.
That said, and before I develop with my theme in detail, I must present at least two presuppositions to the arguments that follow. These are
two presuppositions that I shall present from perhaps an unusual point of view, but which are of central importance nonetheless."
———. 2001. "The Basic Problem of the Theory of Levels of Reality." Axiomathes.An International Journal in Ontology and Cognitive
Systems no. 12:261-283.
Two essential aspects of Hartmann's thought are its categorial perspective and the theory of the levels of reality. They are also aspects
which have exerted significant influence on Hartmann's intellectual legacy, however limited that may be. Here I wish to point out their importance for
Bertalanffy (see his General Systems Theory, 1968) and Lorenz (see his Behind the mirror: a search for a natural history of human knowledge,
1978). The latter notes the close similarity between his own ideas and those of Hartmann, and he recalls that for Hartmann the world possesses the unity of a
system, but it is a system made up of layers. Some pages earlier he writes that he once asked Roberto Corti, who was closely acquainted with Hartmann, how he
thought Hartmann would have reacted to a philogenetic interpretation of his thought. Corti replied that Hartmann would undoubtedly have rejected such an
interpretation, but then added "And yet this is the only way to do anything with it"." (p. 261)
Poli, Roberto, Scognamiglio, Carlo, and Tremblay, Frederic, eds. 2011. The Philosophy of Nicolai Hartmann . Berlin: de Gruyter.
Nicolai Hartmann was one of the most prolific and original, yet sober, clear and rigorous, 20th century German philosophers. Hartmann was
brought up as a Neo-Kantian, but soon turned his back on Kantianism to become one of the most important proponents of ontological realism. He developed what he
calls the "new ontology", on which relies a systematic opus dealing with all the main areas of philosophy. His work had major influences both in philosophy and
in various scientific disciplines. The contributions collected in this volume from an international group of Hartmann scholars and philosophers explore
subjects such as Hartmann's philosophical development from Neo-Kantianism to ontological realism, the difference between the way he and Heidegger overcame
Neo-Kantianism, his Platonism concerning eternal objects and his interpretation of Plato, his Aristotelianism, his theoretical relation to Wolff's ontology and
Meinong's theory of objects, his treatment and use of the aporematic method, his metaphysics, his ethics and theory of values, his philosophy of mind, his
philosophy of mathematics, as well as the influence he had on 20th century philosophical anthropology and biology".
Ruttkowski, Wolfgang. 2007. Essays on Aesthetics, Poetics and Terminology of Literary Studies . München: Grin Verlag.
Essay I: Stratum, structure, and genre (1973) pp. 4-30.
"The concept of genre can be satisfactorily explained only in comparison with the concepts of stratum and
structure. Proceeding from this conviction we shall try here to establish a demarcation of these often used terms and at the same time prove their
Essay III: The main differences between Roman Ingarden's and Nicolai Hartmann's Strata systems (1990) pp. 31-48.
"Although both designed strata-models for various kinds of art and especially for literature, the philosophers Nicolai Hartmann and Roman
Ingarden never entered into any kind of dialogue. Also in secondary literature there is no exact comparison of their systems to be found.
For that reason, the two strata systems are compared here for the first time and their respective advantages and deficiencies are being
Amongst other things. the following topics are being discussed: 1. In what way Hartmann's "Real Foreground" ("Realer Vordergrund") is more
specifically subdivided in Ingarden's system. - 2. How, on the other hand. Ingarden's "Stratum of Depicted Objects" ("Schicht der dargestellten
Gegenstãndlichkeiten") was more thoroughly subdivided by Hartmann. 3. Why there cannot be found in Hartmann's system a corresponding stratum for Ingarden's
''Stratum of Schematized Aspects" ("Schicht der schematischen Ansichten") - and 4. Why Hartmann's two strata of the Treat Background" (''Irrealer Hintergrund")
are consolidated by Ingarden and expressly not seen as a stratum."
Sajama, Seppo. 1985. "Supererogation and High Values." Theoria no. 51:77-88.
Nicolai Hartmann's value-theory can be used to generate a five-fold classification of actions: "duties" are actions whose omission is
blameworthy and performance not praiseworthy, whereas the performance of "supererogatory" actions is praiseworthy and their omission not blameworthy.
Moreover, the contrary of a duty is a "forbidden" action, that of an supererogatory action is an "excusable" action. Besides these four,
there are also "indifferent" actions."
Samuel, Otto. 1953. A Foundation of Ontology. A Critical Analysis of Nicolai Hartmann . New York: Philosophical Library.
Contents: Introduction IX-XV; 1. Why must we return to ontology? 1; 2. The incomplete approach of Hartmann 7; 3. On the Extant as Extant in
general 15; 4. On the difference betweein Being (Sein ) and Extant (Seiendes ) 29; 5. The relationship of Hereness (Dasein ) and
Suchness (Sosein ) 45; 6. Modes and modalities of Being 57; 7. The Givenness of Real Being 74; 8. The certainty of Reality 90; 9. The problem and
position of Ideal Being 115; 10. The transition to meontology 128; Index 151-155.
Note: Chapters 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 are the outilemes of the teachings of Hartmann. Chapters 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 contain the critical analysis of
"Hartmann's literary accomplishments in life consist of three parts. The first one comprises the new foundations of ontology. It is composed
of three books: "Zur Grundlegung der Ontologie" (On the Foundations of Ontology), "Möglichkeit and Wirklichkeit" (Possibility and
Factuality), and "Der Aufbau der realen Welt" (The Structure of the Real World). The last of the three presents the general theory of categories (*).
The second part covers natural philosophy, an introduction to the special theory of categories, furthermore "Grundzüge einer Metaphysik der
Erkenntnis" (Outlines of a Metaphysics of Knowledge), and "Das Problem des geistigen Seins" (The Problem of Spiritual Being). The third part is
his "Ethik" (Ethics).
The present dissertation will be limited primarily to the first of these books, "Zur Grundlegung der Ontologie." This book consists
of a thirty-eight-page introduction (the reader will find here a condensed, five-page summary) and four individual papers - "Das Seiende als
Seiendes" (The Extant as Extant), "Dasein and Sosein" (Hereness and Suchness), "Die Realitätsgegebenheit" (The Givenness of
Reality), and "Das ideale Sein" (Ideal Being)." pp. X-XI.
(*) [The fourth and last book, "Philosophie der Natur. Abriss der speziellen Kategorienlehre " (Philosophy of Nature. Sketch of
Special Theory of Categories) was published in 1950].
Schaar, Maria van der. 2001. "Hartmann's Rejection of the Notion of Evidence." Axiomathes.An International Journal in Ontology and
Cognitive Systems no. 12:285-297.
Any one fascinated by the problem of evidence, does well to read Günther Patzig's formulation of the problem given in an article on Husserl
(Patzig 'Husserl on Truth and Evidence', in J. N. Mohanty (ed.), Readings in Edmund Husserl's Logical Investigations, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff,
1977, pp. 179-196) (1). Either evidence is accessible to consciousness, in which case the evidence of our judgement can give no guarantee for (absolute) truth;
or evidence is a guarantee for (absolute) truth, but then it cannot be accessible to consciousness. Possibly Patzig's attention was drawn to the problem of
evidence by his teacher at Göttingen, Nicolai Hartmann. Although Hartmann was not alone in criticizing the concept of evidence at the first half of the
twentieth century, he must be credited for having given a clear formulation of the problem of evidence. This paper attempts an evaluation of Hartmann's
criticism of the concept of evidence. Any epistemological theory of evidence has to answer Hartmann's criticism on the notion of evidence. Hartmann's
epistemology, and his criticism of the concept of evidence, will be dealt with in the first half of the paper. An outline of an epistemology that meets
Hartmann's challenge, in terms of an evidence theory of truth, is presented in the second half of the paper."
(1) 'Evidence not in the sense of piece of evidence for something, but as a characteristic of certain judgements, evidence
Schaper, Eva. 1956. "The Aesthetics of Hartmann and Bense." Review of Metaphysics no. 10:289-307.
Schilling, Kurt. 1951. "Bemergkungen Zu Nicolai Hartmanns Ontologie." Archiv für Recht- und Sozialphilosophie no. 39:533-555.
Schlittmaier, Anton. 1999. Zur Methodik Und Systematik Von Aporien: Untersuchungen Zur Aporetik Bei Nicolai Hartmann Und Gottfried
Martin . Würzburg: Königshausen und Neumann.
Schuetzinger, Caroline. 1966. "The Gnoseological Transcendence in Nicolai Hartmann's Metaphysics of Cognition (First Part)." Thomist
———. 1966. "The Gnoseological Transcendence in Nicolai Hartmann's Metaphysics of Cognition (Second Part)." Thomist no.
Scognamiglio, Carlo. 2003. La Teoria Ontologica Di Nicolai Hartmann E La Processualità Del Reale, 2003.
———. 2007. "Il Problema Del Soggetto Nell'ontologia Critica Di Nicolai Hartmann." In Perspectives Sur Le Sujet / Prospettive Filosofiche
Sul Soggetto, edited by Trincia, Francesco and Bancalari, Stefano, 126-145. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.
———. 2010. La Persona. Etica E Ontologia in Nicolai Hartmann . Lecce: Pensa Multimedia.
Seel, Gerhard. 1982. Die Aristotelische Modaltheorie . Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Ertse Kapitel: N. Hartmanns generelle Modaltheorie; seine Theorie der Realmodi; seine Interpretation der Aristotelischen
Modaltheorie - pp. 1-132.
Siitonen, Arto. 1989. Problems of Aporetics . Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.
Sirchia, Francesco. 1969. Nicolai Hartmann Dal Neokantismo All'ontologia. La Filosofia Degli Scritti Giovanili (1909-1919) . Milano:
Vita e Pensiero.
Smith, John E. 1954. "Hartmann's New Ontology." Review of Metaphysics no. 7:583-601.
Spiegelberg, Herbert. 1982. The Phenomenological Movement: A Historical Introduction . The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Third revised edition; first edition 1960; second edition 1965.
Chapter VI: Phenomenology in the critical ontology of Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950) - pp. 305-357.
Stallmach, Josef. 1987. Ansichsein Und Seinsverstehen. Neue Wege Der Ontologie Bei Nicolai Hartmann Und Martin Heidegger . Bonn:
Taubes, Jacob. 1953. "The Development of the Ontological Question in Recent German Philosophy." Review of Metaphysics no.
Tegtmeier, Erwin. 2001. "Hartmann's General Ontology." Axiomathes.An International Journal in Ontology and Cognitive Systems no.
It is striking how many different word combinations containing "being" you find in Hartmann: ways of being (Seinsweisen), modes of being
(Seinsmodi), elements of being (Seinsmomente), degrees of being (Seinsstufen), grades of being (Seinsgrade), factors of being (Seinsfaktoren), regions of being
(Seinsregionen), spheres of being (Seinssphären), layers of being (Seinsschichten), weight of being (Seinsgewicht), presentation of being (Seinsgegebenheit). I
happen to have claimed at several places' that existence does neither allow for differentiation nor for gradation. However, the Phenomenologists, Hartmann's
contemporaries, like such verbal combinations, too. And there is, of course, a long tradition of this. The founder of ontology, Aristotle, founded this subject
before all on the term "being" and its ambiguities. He distinguishes between the use of "to be" with a substantial and with an accidental predicate, also
between its use in actuality and potentiality predication. On the face of it, Aristotle distinguishes between kinds of predicative connection. However, he does
not admit genuine connections but only natured things. Thus, he can be taken to claim that substances, things with accidents, actual and potential things exist
in different ways. He distinguishes in Hartmann's terms between two ways of existence (Existenzweisen), namely substantial and accidental existence, and two
modes of existence (Modi der Existenz), namely actuality and potentiality. Following Plato who granted full existence only to forms and mere half-existence to
perceptual things, Aristotle also assumes degrees of existence, accidents, e.g., have a lower degree of existence than substances and relational accidents a
lower degree than qualitative accidents. In Aristotle categories are distinguished as different ways of being. Hartmann holds that different ways of being do
not already found categories or only in a wide sense. On the whole Hartmann understands the distinction between ways of being as formal and that between
categories as material (inhaltlich)."
Tertulian, Nicolas. 1984. "La Rinascita Dell' Ontologia: Hartmann, Heidegger E Lukács." Critica Marxista :125-150.
———. 2003. "Nicolai Hartmann Et Georg Lukács. Une Alliance Féconde." Archives de Philosophie no. 46:663-698.
The encounter between Lukács'philosophy and ontological thought of Nicolai Hartmann is a seldom tackled topic in philosophical
historiography. The contact with Hartmann's great ontological works played a key role in the genesis of Ontology of Social Being, the work which has
crowned the intellectual and political course of Lukács. This paper aims to clear up the deep affinity between two historical thoughts that all seemed to
separate. Hartmann cultivated a philosophia perennis above socio-historical contingences, while Lukács, an engaged philosopher in the battles of the
century, built a work which was saturated with Marxian thought. There are nevertheless significant links between them: a critique of Husserlian phenomenology,
a critique of neo-positivist currents and, above all, strong reservation with regard to Heidegger."
Tymieniecka, Anna-Teresa. 1957. Essence Et Existence. Étude À Propos De La Philosophie De Roman Ingarden Et Nicolai Hartmann .
Paris: Aubier Editions Montaigne.
Vossenberg, Ewald van den. 1963. Die Letzten Gründe Der Innerweltlichkeit in Nicolai Hartmanns Philosophie . Roma: Pontificia
Wahl, Jean. 1953. La Structure Du Monde Réel D'aprés N. Hartmann . Paris: Centre de documentation universitaire.
Cours de la Sorbonne (1952).
———. 1954. La Théorie Des Catégories Fondamentales Dans Nicolai Hartmann . Paris: Centre de documentation universitaire.
Cours de la Sorbonne (1953).
———. 1955. Les Aspects Qualitatifs Du Réel. I. Introduction, La Philosophie Del'existence; Ii. Début D'une Étude Sur Husserl; Iii. La
Philosophi De La Nature De N. Hartmann . Paris: Centre de documentation universitaire.
Cours de la Sorbonne (1954).
Wein, Hermann. 1952. "Nicolai Hartmanns Kategorialanalyse Und Die Idee Einer Strukturlogik." In Nicolai Hartmann. Der Denker Und Sein
Weik, edited by Heimsoeth, Heinz and Hein, Robert, 173-185. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
———. 1959. "Der Streit Und Die Ordnung Und Einheit Der Realwelt. Für Und Wider Nicolai Hartmann." Philosophia Naturalis no.
Welsh, Jordan Robert. 2001. "Hartmann, Schutz, and the Hermeneutics of Action." Axiomathes.An International Journal in Ontology and
Cognitive Systems no. 12:327-338.
Werkmeister, William Henry. 1970. Historical Spectrum of Value Theories. I. The German-Language Group . Lincoln: Ne-Johnsen.
———. 1981. "Kant, Nicolai Hartmann, and the Great Chain of Being." In The Great Chain of Being and Italian Phenomenology, edited by
Bello, Angela Ales, 69-97. Dordrecht: Reidel.
At first glance it may seem that relating the philosophies of Immanuel Kant and Nicolai Hartmann to Alexander Pope's conception of the Great
Chain of Being is arbitrary to the point of absurdity. However, a closer book at the facts will soon show that it is by no means absurd or even arbitrary, for
both Kant and Hartmann are concerned with an interpretation of the Great Chain of Being -- albeit from radically different points of view. This difference
Nicolai Hartmann has stressed in his formidable Grundzüge einer Metaphysik der Erkenntnis . (1) There he quotes Kant's "highest principle of all
synthetic judgments": "The conditions of the possibility of experience as such are at the same time conditions of the possibility of the objects of experience,
and therefore have objective validity in a synthetic judgment a priori. " (2)
Kant had argued, quite correctly, that synthetic judgments a priori could not validly apply to objects if the conditions of the
possibility of experience were imposed upon the subject by the objects of experience. The failure of empiricism in all its forms is proof of this fact. Not one
of them can justify the a priori employment of synthetic propositions. Kant had therefore assigned to the subject the role of imposing the conditions
of possible experience upon the object. But in doing so, he had overlooked a "third possibility", namely, that the conditions of the possibility of experience
are imposed neither by the subject nor by the object; that they are simply metaphysical conditions "this side of idealism and realism" which are equally
binding for subject and object.
It is Hartmann's contention that this "highest principle" is obvious to all who understand it, and that it finds its validation in the actual
analysis of experience. In what sense, then, does it help us to understand Hartmann's conception of the Great Chain of Being? And how does this differ from
Kant's commitment to Pope's idea?" (p. 69)
(1) Second edition (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1925), p. 340
(2) A158 / B197
———. 1990. Nicolai Hartmann's New Ontology . Tallahassee: Florida State University Press.
Contents: Introduction XI-XVII; Chapter I: The epistemological basis of Nicolai Hartmann's New Ontology 1; Chapter II: The structure of the
real world 32; Chapter III: An analysis of modalities 69; Chapter IV: Philosophy of Nature 88: Chapter V: The realm of Spiritual Being 134; Chapter VI: Ethics
192; Chapter VII: Aesthetics 223; Bibliography 241; Index 245-252.
"This is an integrative study of "all" of Nicolai Hartmann's publications, with special attention to his epistemology, his categorial
analyses of the structure of the real world, of modalities, and the realm of spiritual reality. In all of his works Hartmann begins with the phenomena, not
with metaphysical speculation, and carries his analyses out in great detail. There is nothing like it in the philosophy of the early twentieth century."
Wildgen, Wolfgang. 2001. "Natural Ontologies and Semantic Roles in Sentences." Axiomathes.An International Journal in Ontology and
Cognitive Systems no. 12:171-193.
My central concern in the treatment of Hartmann's "New Ontology" will be the role of language and other "symbolic forms" (in the terms of
Cassirer's "Philosophie der symbolischen Formen", 1923-1929)."
Wirth, Ingeborg. 1965. Realismus Und Apriorismus in Nicolai Hartmanns Erkenntnistheorie. Mit Einer Bibliographie Der Seit 1952 Uber
Hartmann Erschienenen Arbeiten . Berlin: De Gruyter & Co.
Wolandt, Gerd. 1963. "Hartmanns Weg Zur Ontologie." Kant Studien no. 54:304-316.
———. 1982. "Nicolai Hartmanns Systematik." In Nicolai Hartmann 1882-1982, 290-305. Bonn: Bouvier Verlag Herbert Grundmann.