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Selected bibliography on Comparative Philosophy


  1. Abe, Masao. 1985. Zen and Western Thought. London: Macmillan.

  2. Adams, Maurice, and Van Hoecke, Mark, eds. 2021. Comparative Methods in Law, Humanities and Social Sciences. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

  3. Allen, Douglas, ed. 1997. Culture and Self: Philosophical and Religious Perspectives, East and West. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

  4. Allinson, Robert E. 2001. "The Myth of Comparative Philosophy or the Comparative Philosophy Malgré Lui." In Two Roads to Wisdom? Chinese and Analytic Philosophical Traditions, edited by Mou, Bo, 269-291. La Salle, IL: Open Curt.

  5. Ames, Roger T. 1990. "Directory of Comparative Philosophers." Philosophy East and West no. 40:73-97.

  6. ———. 1991. "Directory of Comparative Philosophers: Part II." Philosophy East and West no. 41:537-556.

  7. Ames, Roger T., and Callicott, J. Baird, eds. 1989. Nature in Asian Traditions of Thought: Essays in Environmental Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  8. Ames, Roger T., and Dissanayake, Wimal, eds. 1996. Self and Deception: A Cross Cultural Perspective. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  9. Ames, Roger T., Kasulis, Thomas, and Dissanayake, Wimal, eds. 1992. Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  10. ———, eds. 1998. Self as Image in Asian Theory and Practice. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  11. Angle, Stephen C. 2010. "The Minimal Definition and Methodology of Comparative Philosophy. A Report from a Conference." Comparative Philosophy no. 1:106-110.

  12. Bahm, Archie John. 1977. Comparative Philosophy: Western, Indian and Chinese Philosophies Compared. Albuquerque: Universal Publications.

    Second revised edition 1995.

    Contents: 1. Introduction: What is Comparative Philosophy?; 2. Standards for Comparative Philosophy; 3. Eastern and Western Philosophies Compared; 4. Truth, Sataya, Cheng; 5. Good, Ananda, Chung; 6. Three Zeros; 7. Comparative Philosophy and World Philosophy.

  13. Balslev, Anindita N. 1997. "Philosophy and Cross-Cultural Conversation: Some Comments on the project of Comparative Philosophy." Metaphilosophy no. 28:359-370.

  14. Benesch, Walter. 1993. "The Euclidean Egg, the Three Legged Chinese Chicken." Journal of Chinese philosophy no. 20:109-131.

    “Contextual vs. Formal Approaches to Reason and Logics”

    An Approach to Comparative Philosophy & Logics.

  15. ———. 1997. An Introduction to Comparative Philosophy: A Travel Guide to Philosophical Space. London: Macmillan.

  16. Bhattacharyya, Kalidas. 1958. "Classical Philosophies of India and the West." Philosophy East and West no. 8:17-36.

  17. Bilimoria, Purushottama, and Hemmingsen, Michael, eds. 2016. Comparative Philosophy and J. L. Shaw. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

  18. Blocker, Gene H. 1999. World Philosophy: An East-West Comparative Introduction to Philosophy. New York: Prentice Hall.

    Contents: Preface VII-XII; 1. Introduction: What is Philosophy? 1; 2 Logic and Language 42; 3. Epistemology, or Theory of Knowledge 78; 4. Metaphysics 105; 5. Ethics 159; 6. Social and Political Philosophy 201; Bibliography 232; Glossary 235; Timelines 244-246.

  19. Bonevac, Daniel, and Phillips, Stephen. 1993. Understanding Non-Western Philosophy. Introductory Readings. Mountain View: Mayfield.

  20. Bontekoe, Ron. 2014. "The Heated French Debate on Comparative Philosophy Continues: Philosophy versus Philology." Philosophy East and West no. 64:218-228.

  21. ———. 2017. "Some Opening Remarks on the Exclusionary Tendency in Western Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 67:957-965.

  22. Botz-Bornstein, Thorsten. 2006. "Ethnophilosophy, Comparative Philosophy, Pragmatism: Toward a Philosophy of Ethnoscapes." Philosophy East and West no. 56:153-171.

  23. ———. 2014. "The Heated French Debate on Comparative Philosophy Continues: Philosophy versus Philology." Philosophy East and West no. 64:218-228.

  24. Bradley, D. Park. 2006. "The Critical Presence of the Other: Comparative Philosophy, Self-Knowledge, and Accountability." Journal of Philosophy and Culture no. 3.

    Abstract: "Western philosophy has traditionally taken justification as necessary for constituting genuine knowledge. On the contemporary scene, however, several influential epistemological theories (Gadamer, Polanyi, Kuhn, Sellars) see the project of epistemological transparency as undermined by the fact that implicit conditions necessarily underlie our explicit knowing. In this paper, I argue that “we” must engage non-Western traditions of thought, if we are to remain committed to justifying the conditions of our knowing. To put it differently, philosophical accountability requires discarding the delusion of self-critique and coming to recognize our dependence on the critical distance provided by Other traditions."

  25. Brooks, Thom. 2013. "Philosophy Unbound: The Idea of Global Philosophy." Metaphilosophy no. 44:254-266.

    Abstract: "The future of philosophy is moving towards "global philosophy." The idea of global philosophy is the view that different philosophical approaches may engage more substantially with each other to solve philosophical problems. Most solutions attempt to use only those available resources located within one philosophical tradition. A more promising approach might be to expand the range of available resources to better assist our ability to offer more compelling solutions.

    This search for new horizons in order to improve our clarity about philosophical issues is at the heart of global philosophy. The idea of global philosophy encourages us to look beyond our traditions to improve our philosophical problem solving by our own lights. Global philosophy is a new approach whose time is coming. This essay offers the first account of this approach and an assessment of its future promise."

  26. Brown, Nahum, and Franke, William, eds. 2016. Transcendence, Immanence, and Intercultural Philosophy. Cham (Switzerland): Palgrave Macmillan.

  27. Burik, Steven. 2009. The End of Comparative Philosophy and the Task of Comparative Thinking. Heidegger, Derrida, and Daoism. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  28. Burik, Steven, Smid, Robert W., and Weber, Ralph, eds. 2022. Comparative Philosophy and Method: Contemporary Practices and Future Possibilities. New York: Bloomsbury.

  29. Chakrabarti, Arindam, and Weber, Ralph, eds. 2016. Comparative Philosophy without Borders. New York: Routledge.

  30. Clarke, J.J. 1997. Oriental Enlightenment: The Encounter Between Asian and Western Thought. New York: Routledge.

  31. Connolly, Tim. 2015. Doing Philosophy Comparatively. New York: Bloomsbury.

  32. Cooper, David E. 2002. World Philosophies: A Historical Introduction. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Second revised edition.

  33. Creller, Aaron B. 2016. "Introducing the World: Making Time for Islamic and Chinese Material alongside the Western Canon." ASIANetwork Exchange no. 23:124-138.

    Abstract: "In this essay I consider the challenges faced by non-specialists in comparative philosophy. I address several familiar objections to incorporating non-Western material into standing philosophy courses (i.e., the view that the material is, indeed, not included in the category philosophy, or the worry that there simply is not enough time to cover such material). In answering these objections, I emphasize that what we today call the “Western” canon has historically been shaped by a plurality of cultures. I then conclude with several sample course modules, designed to help non-specialists incorporate sessions on Islamic and Chinese philosophy into introductory classes."

  34. ———. 2018. Making Space for Knowing: A Capacious Approach to Comparative Epistemology. Lanham: Lexington Books.

  35. Dallmayr, Fred. 1996. Beyond Orientalism: Essays on Cross-Cultural Encounter. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  36. Daye, Douglas Dunsmore. 1976. "Language and the Languages of East-West Philosophy: An Introduction." Philosophy East and West no. 26:113-115.

  37. Defoort, Carine. 2001. "Is There Such a Thing as Chinese Philosophy? Arguments of an Implicit Debate." Philosophy East and West no. 51:393-413.

  38. Deng, Xize. 2010. "Problem and Method: The Possibility of Comparative Study—Using “Lun Liujia Yaozhi” as an Example." Frontiers of hilosophy in China no. 5:575-600.

  39. Deutsch, Eliot, ed. 1991. Culture and Modernity: East-West Philosophics Perspectives. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

  40. ———. 1997. Introduction to World Philosophies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

  41. Deutsch, Eliot, and Bontekoe, Ron, eds. 1997. A Companion to World Philosophies. Oxford: Blackwell.

    "The purpose of this work is to provide a sophisticated, one-volume companion to the study of select non-Western philosophical traditions. It has become increasingly evident to many teachers and students of philosophy as well as to general readers that philosophy is not the exclusive province of the West: that indeed other traditions have a depth and range comparable to Western thought and exhibit distinctive features, the knowledge of which can enrich philosophical understanding and creativity wherever it occurs. This volume wit strive at once to introduce some of the finest thinking within and about non-Western traditions to teachers, students and general readers, and to offer interpretations and insights relevant to the work of other scholars in the field." (from the Introduction, p. XII)

  42. Devaraja, N. K. 1967. "Philosophy and Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 17:51-59.

  43. Dilworth, David A. 1989. Philosophy in World Perspective: A Comparative Hermeneutic of the Major Theories. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  44. Dorter, Kenneth. 2018. Can Different Cultures Think the Same Thoughts? A Comparative Study in Metaphysics and Ethics. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.

  45. Fleming, Jesse. 2003. "Comparative Philosophy: Its Aims and Methods." Journal of Chinese philosophy no. 30:259-270.

  46. Frazier, Jessica. 2020. "‘The View from Above’: A Theory of Comparative Philosophy." Religious Studies no. 56:32-48.

    Abstract: "What if doing philosophy across cultures is always implicitly a matter of metaphilosophy – of articulating more clearly the nature of philosophy itself? What if it forces us to ‘stand back’ hermeneutically and map out a ‘view from above’ of the underlying fabric of ideas – in their constitutive concepts, their relations to other ways of thinking, and their potential to be configured in alternative fascinating and fruitful ways?

    This article incorporates existing approaches to comparative philosophy within a single scheme of complementary philosophical activities, and a single overarching metaphilosophical project. These approaches are (1) ‘archival’ (exploring parallel but separate philosophical traditions), (2) ‘equivalentist’ (comparing traditions in terms of analogies and contrasts), and (3) ‘problem-solving’ (using multiple traditions to provide philosophical solutions). I situate these within (4) the overarching hermeneutic project of ‘mapping’ concepts and their possibilities. This entails the theory that philosophies drawing on multiple perspectives are always implicitly engaged in mapping out the underlying eidetic structure upon which philosophy does its work, and charting the conceptual possibilities surrounding any idea."

  47. Freschi, Elisa, and Keating, Malcolm. 2017. "How Do We Gather Knowledge Through Language?" Journal of World Philosophies no. 2:42-46.

  48. Frisina, Warren G. 2016. "Thinking Through Hall and Ames: On the Art of Comparative Philosophy." Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 15:563-574.

  49. Ganeri, Jonardon. 2016. "Symposium: »Is Reason a Neutral Tool in Comparative Philosophy?«." Confluence: Journal of World Philosophies no. 4:134-186.

  50. Gangadean, Ashok K. 1980. "Comparative Ontology: Relative and Absolute Truth." Philosophy East and West no. 30:465-480.

  51. Garfield, Jay L., and Edelglass, William, eds. 2011. The Oxford Handbook of World Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.

  52. Gorong, Yang. 2008. "Being and Value: From the Perspective of Chinese-Western Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 58:267-282.

  53. Hackett, Stuart Cornelius. 1979. Oriental Philosophy: A Westerner’s Guide to Eastern Thought. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

  54. Halbfass, Wilhelm. 1985. "India and the Comparative Method." Philosophy East and West no. 35:3-15.

  55. Hall, David L. 2001. "Just How Provincial Is Western Philosophy? ‘Truth’ in Comparative Context." Social Epistemology: A Journal of Knowledge no. 25:285-297.

  56. Hamminga, Bert, ed. 2005. Knowledge Cultures: Comparative Western and African Epistemology. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

  57. Hershock, Peter D., and Ames, Roger T., eds. 2019. Philosophies of Place: An Intercultural Conversation. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press and East-West Philosophers’ Conference.

  58. Hongladarom, Soraj. 2019. "How to Understand the Identity of an Object of Study in Comparative Philosophy." Comparative Philosophy no. 10:119-126.

  59. Jenco, Leigh K. 2012. "How Meaning Moves: Tan Sitong on Borrowing across Cultures." Philosophy East and West no. 62:92-113.

  60. Jung, Hwa Yol. 2011. Transversal Rationality and Intercultural Texts: Essays in Phenomenology and Comparative Philosophy. Athens: Ohio University Press.

  61. Kahteran, Nevad. 2021. "Towards Post-Comparative Philosophy: Interview with Ralph Weber." Asian Studies no. 9:211-221.

  62. Kaipayil, Joseph. 1995. The Epistemology of Comparative Philosophy: A Critique with Reference to P. T. Raju's Views. Rome: Centre for Indian and Inter-Religious Studies.

  63. Kakol, Peter. 2002. "A General Theory of Worldviews Based on Madhyamika and Process Philosophies." Philosophy East and West no. 52:207-223.

  64. Kalmanson, Leah. 2017. "The Ritual Methods of Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 67:399-418.

  65. Kessler, Gary E. 2015. Voices of Wisdom: A Multicultural Philosophy Reader. Andover (Hamshire): Cengage Learning.

    Ninth edition.

  66. Kirloskar-Steinbach, Monika, and Kalmanson, Leah. 2021. A Practical Guide to World Philosophies: Selves, Worlds, and Ways of Knowing. New York: Bloomsnury Academic.

  67. Koller, John M. 2018. Asian Philosophies. New York: Routledge.

    Seventh edition.

  68. Kramer, Eli. 2021. Intercultural Modes of Philosophy, Volume One: Principles to Guide Philosophical Community. Leiden: Brill.

  69. Krishna, Daya. 1988. "Comparative Philosophy: What It Is and What It Ought to Be." In Interpreting Across Boundaries. New Essays in Comparative Philosophy, edited by Larson, Gerald James and Deutsch, Eliot, 71-83. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Reprinted in N. Bhushan, J. L. Garfield, D. Raveh (eds.), Contrary Thinking. Selected essays of Daya Krishna, New York: Oxford University Press 2011, pp. 59-67.

  70. Kupperman, Joel J. 2001. Classic Asian Philosophy: A Guide to the Essential Texts. New York: Oxford University Press.

  71. Kwee, Swan Liat. 1951. "Methods of Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 1:10-15.

  72. ———. 1953. Methods of Comparative Philosophy. Scheveningen - Leiden: Offsetdrkkerij Dorsman.

    Contents: Preface V-IX; Part One: The Meaning of Comparative Philosophy. 1: Introduction 3; 2. Analysis of the phenomenon 18; 3. A historical perspective 30; Part Two: The Meaning of Philosophy. 4. Phenomenology of philosophy 61; 5. The function of philosophy 68; 6. The contents of philosophy 84; 7. The systematics of philosophy 92; Part Three: The Methods of Comparative Philosophy. 8. A triangulation of methods 111; 9. The historical and sociological approach 120; 10. The anthropological and psychological approach 139; 11. The linguistic and logical approach 154; 12. The transcendental re-evaluative approach 171; Bibliography 187; Index 207-217.

    "The analysis of methods of comparative philosophy, originally intended to serve as a base for the design of a new program of applied philosophical studies in Indonesia, is presented here as a general survey of the phenomenon of comparative philosophy as such, without references to Indonesian thought. As a survey it strives after comprehensiveness rather than completeness. No such survey has been attempted yet. Those who are engaged in the study of comparative philosophy may have some knowledge of some of the other projects with analogous purposes, but a comprehensive and systematic treatment of comparative philosophy, covering the whole field of studies, is still lacking. The present study by no means pretends to fill up this gap completely. It does not attempt to give a detailed and accurate picture of the scene, but rather to indicate the main horizons. As in a usual triangulation some points of reference are marked off with some emphasis while inter mediate areas are left out of consideration. The only possible merit of such an undertaking lies in what has-not-yet-been-said rather than in what is actually propounded, It serves to stimulate to further, more systematic and more integral researches rather than to registrate objectively what has been achieved at the moment. It serves to link apparently disconnected projects and themes, and so to open unexpected vistas and to readjust and enlarge existent perspectives, When it succeeds to evoke some fertile criticism, to bring about more-effective co-ordination in the many contemporary projects of comparative philosophy, and to contribute to the growth of practical transcultural understanding, the author's main intentions have been amply rewarded.

    Because this work is itself a survey it is impracticable to add a summary to it. The three parts of which it is composed, respectively dealing with a systematic analysis of the phenomenon of comparative philosophy, asystematic analysis of the phenomenon of philosophy itself, and the current methods of comparative philosophy, constitute a systematic whole." (pp. VI-VIII)

    "This study is composed of three parts.

    The first part will be an analysis of the meaning of comparative philosophy. A first mapping of the phenomenon is carried out in three sections. Some of the most significant recent studies are mentioned in this chapter. A second chapter will be devoted to an analysis of the main problems. Then, the phenomenon is viewed in a historical perspective.

    The second part will contain an analysis of the meaning of philosophy itself. The phenomenon of philosophy being the formal object of study in comparative philosophy, a mapping of this phenomenon itself is indispensable for an adequate integration of the various fragmentary endeavours in comparative philosophy. On the base of a comprehensive phenomenology of philosophy the systematic study of comparative philosophy will be facilitated. The third and last part is a comprehensive survey of current methods of comparative philosophy. A triangulation of methods is an efficient means to reveal the actual character of comparative philosophy as a consistent discipline." (pp. 4-5)

  73. Lacertosa, Massimiliano. 2017. "For a philosophy of comparisons: the problems of comparative studies in relation with Daoism." Asian Philosophy no. 27:324-339.

  74. Larson, Gerald James, and Deutsch, Eliot, eds. 1988. Interpreting Across Boundaries: New Essays in Comparative Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  75. Levine, Michael. 2016. "Does Comparative Philosophy Have a Fusion Future?" Confluence: Journal of World Philosophies no. 4:208-237.

  76. ———. 2017. "Response to Commentators: ‘Does Comparative Philosophy Have a Fusion Future?'." Journal of World Philosophies no. 2:174-178.

  77. Li, Chenyang. 1999. The Tao Encounters the West: Explorations in Comparative Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Contents: Acknowledgments IX; Introduction 1; Chapter 1. Being: perspective versus substance 11; Chapter 2. Truth: Confucius and Heidegger 35; Chapter 3. Pragmatic versus semantic 63; Chapter 4. Ethics: Confucian Jen and Feminist Care 89; Chapter 5. Family: duty versus rights 115; Chapter 6. Religion: multiple participation versus exclusionism 139; Chapter 7. Justice: Confucian values and democratic values 163; Concluding remarks 191; Notes 193; Bibliography 217; Index 229.

    From the Introduction: "The book may be seen as a study of Chinese and Western versions Tao. "Tao", as the word is used in Chinese, is not limited to Taoism; in all major Chinese systems it refers to the right way (the Ways or cosmic order even though different schools have different interpretations.' Chinese philosophy, therefore, may be seen as studies of various aspects of the Tao. Neither Chinese nor Western philosophy is homogeneous. There are, however, certain philosophies and philosophers who have had a defining influence within their own cultures and traditions, and I believe that a comparative study of these philosophies and philosophers can be used to demonstrate different thought patterns of the two cultures. Such a study illuminates the Chinese harmony model of life, which serves as a cornerstone of my argument for the coexistence of Confucianism and democracy.

    This book serves a dual purpose. While each chapter contributes directly or indirectly to the main thesis, each also stands on its own as a comparative study of a specific dimension of Western and Chinese philosophical and ethico-religious traditions.

    Chapter 1, "Being: Perspective versus Substance," investigates the differences between Chinese ontology and Aristotelian ontology, which is the most influential in the West. Aristotle's view of being is a substance ontology, according to which the world is composed of various individual substances. The Chinese philosopher Zhuang Zi's ' ontology, which reflects on the background of Chinese thinking in general, is a perspective ontology. According to this ontology, the being or identity of an entity is always contextually situated and perspective-dependent. These ontological differences occur at a fundamental level and thus underlie many other philosophical positions that distinguish Chinese from Western views. Communication and mutual understanding can be enhanced with a clear understanding of these differences. For example, the Chinese "contextual perspective" ontology has profound implications for people's attitudes toward many other significant aspects of life, including truth, morality, and religious practice. Because of the significance of Chinese ontology for Chinese philosophy in general, this first chapter not only provides the basis for chapter 2, on truth, it also has direct relevance to chapters 4 and 5 as the foundation of the Confucian understanding of `personhood."

    Chapter 2, "Truth: Confucius and Heidegger," investigates various concepts of truth, which is a central value in the West and in China. In the West, truth is usually understood semantically; it is a relation between language and reality. The Chinese understand it primarily as a matter of being a good person, as a way of life; being true is the way to realize one's potential for becoming fully human. Different understandings of truth in Western and Chinese philosophies affect value judgments in significant ways. Heidegger is chosen here not because he represents a typical Western understanding of truth (he does not), but because he presents a root metaphor of truth that is shared by both the Chinese and the Westerner. Through exploring Heidegger's view on truth, this chapter demonstrates how the Chinese and Western notions of truth, although sharing the same common metaphor of "unveiling (aletheia)," lead in different directions. This understanding of Chinese truth as a way of life and self-realization provides further ground for discussion in chapters 4, 5. 6, and 7." (pp. 2-3)

  78. ———. 2016. "Comparative Philosophy and Cultural Patterns." Dao. A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 15:533-546.

    Abstract: "As a genus of philosophy, comparative philosophy serves various important purposes. It helps people understand various philosophies and it helps philosophers develop new ideas and solve problems. In this essay, I first clarify the meaning of “comparative philosophy” and its main purposes, arguing that an important purpose of comparative philosophy is to help us understand cultural patterns. This function makes comparative philosophy even more significant in today’s globalized world."

  79. Liang, Shuming. 2001. "The Cultures of the East and West and Their Philosophies." Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 1:107-127.

  80. Libbrecht, Ulrich. 2006. Whithin the Four Seas... Introduction to Comparative Philosophy. Leuven: Peeters.

  81. Lott, Tommy L. 2011. "Comparative Aspects of Africana Philosophy and the Continental-Analytic Divide." Comparative Philosophy no. 2:25-37.

    Abstract: "Critical engagement involving philosophers trained in continental and analytic traditions often takes its purpose to be a reconciliation of tensions arising from differences in style, or method. Critical engagement in Africana philosophy, however, is

    rarely focused on method, style, or orientation because philosophic research in this field, regardless of orientation, has had to accommodate its empirical grounding in disciplines outside of philosophy. I focus primarily on the comparative dimensions of three important strands of this research: (1) a history of ideas, (2) a problem-orientation, and (3) a sub-area specialization, to indicate why a need to reconcile tensions between continental and analytic orientations has very little currency in Africana philosophy. Socio-economic problems faced by African-descended people require multiple perspectives to accommodate the wide variety of diasporic social contexts for a given proposal. I employ a selection of cases to illustrate how Africana philosophy benefits from an interplay of many intersecting factors and that, as an interdisciplinary area of research with a commitment to the incorporation of multiple perspectives, it fosters cross-pollination and hybridization of continental and analytic traditions."

  82. Loy, David. 1988. Nonduality: A Study in Comparative Philosophy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    Reprint: Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press, 1997.

  83. Ma, Lin, and van Brakel, Jaap. 2016. Fundamentals of Comparative and Intercultural Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  84. ———. 2016. "On the Conditions of Possibility for Comparative and Intercultural Philosophy " Dao. A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 12:297-312.

    Abstract: "As a genus of philosophy, comparative philosophy serves various important purposes. It helps people understand various philosophies and it helps philosophers develop new ideas and solve problems. In this essay, I first clarify the meaning of “comparative philosophy” and its main purposes, arguing that an important purpose of comparative philosophy is to help us understand cultural patterns. This function makes comparative philosophy even more significant in today’s globalized world."

  85. ———. 2016. "A Theory of Interpretation for Comparative and Chinese Philosophy." Dao. A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 15:575-589.

    Abstract: "Why should interpretation of conceptual schemes and practices (forms of life) across traditions work at all? In this paper we present the following necessary conditions of possibility for interpretation in comparative and Chinese philosophy: the interpreter must presuppose that there are mutually recognizable human practices; the interpreter must presuppose that “the other” is, on the whole, sincere, consistent, and right; the interpreter must be committed to certain epistemic virtues. Some of these necessary conditions are consistent with the fact that interpretation is not thwarted by the “danger” of relativism or of incommensurability. Some other conditions are suggestive of reorientations of methodologies of comparative and Chinese philosophy."

  86. MacDonald, Paul. 2013. "Palaeo-Philosophy. Archaic Ideas about Space and Time." Comparative Philosophy no. 4:82-117.

    Abstract: "This paper argues that efforts to understand historically remote patterns of thought are driven away from their original meaning if the investigation focuses on reconstruction of concepts, instead of cognitive ‘complexes’. My paper draws on research by Jan Assmann, Jean-Jacques Glassner, Keimpe Algra, Alex Purves, Nicholas Wyatt, and others on the cultures of Ancient Greece, Israel, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Etruria through comparative analyses of the semantic fields of spatial and temporal terms, and how these terms are shaped by their relation to the sphere of the sacred. It shows that there are three super-ordinate timeframes - the cyclical, the linear and the static - each of which is composed of lower-order cycles (days, lunar months, and seasons). These timeframes reflect their cultures’ ideas about the nature, scope and power of the gods, and structure the common point-of-view about the present, the past and eternity. There are also super-ordinate spatial frames which reflect their cultures’ ideas about the heavens and which structure both the sacred precinct and the profane field of action and exchange. Close analysis of texts that use words such as eternity, forever, past, present, and future, for example, do not reveal that there is anything like a general abstract concept of time in virtue of which some thing or event can be said to be in time or to have its own time. Archaic patterns of thought do not differ from our “modern” patterns in having different concepts, but in not having anything like concepts at all."

  87. Malhotra, Ashok. 1980. "Introductory Remarks on the Symposium "The Problem of Truth"." Philosophy East and West no. 30:421-424.

    "This article offers a brief summary of the main points raised in the four papers read in the Symposium on "East-West perspectives on truth" which was organized by the society for Asian and comparative philosophy from December 27-28, 1978 in Washington, d c. The papers covered the Chinese, Japanese, Indian and comparative perspectives on truth. The Symposium revealed that the time had come when a dialogue between Eastern and Western philosophers was not only important but necessary. the Symposium achieved its aim of broadcasting this essential message."

  88. Mall, Ram Adhar. 1998. "Philosophy and Philosophies – Cross-culturally Considered." Topoi no. 17:15-27.

  89. ———. 2014. "Intercultural Philosophy: A Conceptual Clarification." Confluence: Journal of World Philosophies no. 1:67-84.

    Abstract: "In this paper I would like to show how belonging to different cultures does not impede intercultural philosophizing and instead favors it. To that end, I will first pinpoint what exactly intercultural philosophy stands for in Section II. In Section III I will sketch certain crucial features of what is in fact a hermeneutical situation. In Section IV I will develop my own theory of an interculturally-oriented »analogous hermeneutic« and then try to show in Section V that it can furnish what is necessary to do comparative philosophy. A short conclusion will follow in Section VI."

  90. Marks, Joel, and Ames, Roger T. 1995. Emotions in Asian Thought: A Dialogue in Comparative Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  91. Masson-Oursel, Paul. 1926. Comparative Philosophy. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.

    Reprint: London: Routledge, 2000.

    Translated from the French edition: La philosophie Comparée, Paris: Alcan, 1923.

  92. ———. 1951. "True Philosophy is Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 1:6-9.

  93. Matilal, Bimal Krishna, and Shaw, Jaysankar Lal, eds. 1985. Analytical Philosophy in Comparative Perspective. Exploratory Essays in Current Theories and Classical Indian Theories of Meaning and Reference. Dordrecht: Reidel.

  94. McDermott, Charlene, ed. 1983. Comparative Philosophy. Selected Essays. Lanham: University Press of America.

  95. McEvilley, Thomas. 2002. The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. New York: Allworth Press.

  96. Mizumoto, Masaharu, Ganeri, Jonardon, and Goddard, Cliff, eds. 2020. Ethno-Epistemology: New Directions for Global Epistemology. New York: Routledge.

  97. Moeller, Hans-Georg. 2018. "On Comparative and Post-Comparative Philosophy." In Appreciating the Chinese Difference: Engaging Roger T. Ames on Methods, Issues, and Roles, edited by Behuniak, Jim, 31-45. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  98. Moore, Charles Alexander, ed. 1946. Philosophy - East and West. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  99. ———. 1951. "Some Problems of Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 1:67-70.

  100. ———. 1951. Essays in East-West Philosophy. An Attempt at World Philosophical Synthesis. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

    "The report of the Second East-West Philosophers' Conference, held at the University of Hawaii from June 20 to July 28, 1949."

  101. ———. 1952. "Keys to Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 2:76-78.

  102. ———, ed. 1962. Philosophy and Culture: East and West. East-West Philosophy in Practical Perspective. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

    Reprint 1968.

    East-West Philosophy in Practical Perspective. Proceedings of the conference, held at the University of Hawaii under its sponsorship during the summer of 1959.

    "The general theme of the conference was East-West philosophy in practical perspective, and the goal primarily was to achieve mutual understanding between the great cultures of East-and-West, and not to engage in critical analysis. Most of the emphasis was on the classical tradition rather than contemporary movements--especially Buddhism, Hinduism, Mohammedanism and Confucianism. Among the topics discussed were the relation of philosophical theories to practical affairs; natural science and technology in relation to cultural institutions and social practice; religion and spiritual values; ethics and social practice; legal, political and economic philosophy; conspectus of practical implications for world understanding and cooperation."

  103. Mou, Bo, ed. 2003. Comparative Approaches to Chinese Philosophy. Aldershot: Ashgate.

  104. Nakamura, Hajime. 1964. Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples. India, China, Tibet, Japan. Honolulu: East-West Center Press.

    Revised English translation edited by Philip P. Wiener (Original Japanese edition 1960).

  105. ———. 1975. Parallel Developments: A Comparative History of Ideas. New York: Harper & Row.

    Second edition with the title: A Comparative History of Ideas, New Delhi: Kegan Paul International, 1986.

  106. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. 1972. "Conditions for Meaningful Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 22:53-61.

  107. Netton, Ian Richard. 2006. Islam, Christianity and Tradition: A Comparative Exploration. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

  108. Neville, Robert Cummings. 2001. "Two Forms of Comparative Philosophy." Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 1:1-13.

  109. Ng, On-cho, ed. 2008. The Imperative of Understanding: Chinese Philosophy, ComparativePhilosophy, and Onto-Hermeneutics—A Tribute Volume Dedicated to Professor Chung-ying Cheng. New York: Global Scholarly Publications.

  110. Nisbett, Richard E. 2003. The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently . . . and Why. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

  111. Northrop, F. S. C. 1959. "Comparative Philosophy and Science in the Light of Comparative Law." Philosophy East and West no. 9:67-69.

  112. Note, Nicole, Fornet-Betancout, Raúl, Estermann, Josef, and Aerts, Diederik, eds. 2009. Worldviews and Cultures: Philosophical Reflections from an Intercultural Perspective. Berlin: Springer.

  113. Nzegwu, Nkiru. 2016. "Symposium: How (If at All) is Gender Relevant to Comparative Philosophy?" Journal of World Philosophies no. 1:75-118.

    Abstract: "The symposium, “How (if at all) is gender relevant to comparative philosophy,” focuses on relevance of gender as an analytic and critical tool in comparative philosophical understanding and debate. Nkiru Nzegwu argues that gender as conceived by contemporary Euro-American feminism did not exist in pre-colonial Yorùbá as well as many Native American societies, and that therefore employing gender as a conceptual category in understanding the philosophies of pre-colonial Yorùbá and other non-gendered societies constitutes a profound mistake. What’s more, doing so amounts to a totalizing Euro-American colonial imposition that does violence to nongendered societies that reject gender as an ontological category. Hence, gender is ill-suited as a universal comparative philosophical tool. Nzegwu’s three co-symposiasts, Mary I. Bockover, Maitrayee Chaudhuri, and María Luisa Femenías enrich and complicate this question by bringing to bear both conceptual, ethical and empirical considerations drawn from the United States, India, and Latin America respectively."

  114. Oldmeadow, Harry. 2007. "The Comparative Study of Eastern and Western Metaphysics: A Perennialist Perspective." Sophia no. 46:49-64.

  115. Ouyang, Xiao. 2018. "Rethinking Comparative Philosophical Methodology: In Response to Weber's Criticism." Philosophy East and West no. 68:242-256.

  116. ———. 2018. "Rejoinder to Ralph Weber." Philosophy East and West no. 68:261-263.

  117. Panikkar, Raimundo. 1988. "What Is Comparative Philosophy Comparing?" In Interpreting Across Boundaries. New Essays in Comparative Philosophy, edited by Larson, Gerald James and Deutsch, Eliot, 116-136. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  118. Park, Peter K. J. 2013. Africa, Asia, and the History of Philosophy: Racism in the Formation of the Philosophical Canon, 1780–1830. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  119. Priest, Graham. 2003. "Where Is Philosophy at the Start of the Twenty-First Century?" Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society no. 103:85-99.

  120. Radhakrisnan, Sarvepalli, and Raju, Poolla Tirupati, eds. 1960. Concept of Man: A Study in Comparative Philosophy. London: George Allen & Unwin.

  121. Raju, Poolla Tirupati. 1947. "The Western and the Indian Philosophical Traditions." Philosophical Review no. 56:127-155.

    "This was the first important paper published by me on comparative philosophy in USA. in a way, it was the forerunner of my book, Introduction to comparative philosophy (University of Nebraska Press, 1962). for a quick bird's eye view of the two traditions, it will be very useful. it will be useful particularly for those who cannot find time enough to read my thicker books on comparative philosophy."

  122. ———. 1955. "Idealisms: Eastern and Western." Philosophy East and West no. 5:211-234.

    "This is a comparison of Western and Eastern (including the Chinese) idealistic thought in its growth. It gives in a short space a summary of the similarities and differences."

  123. ———. 1957. "Being, Existence, Reality, and Truth." Philosophy East and West no. 17:291-315.

    "This paper which attempted to clarify the meanings of the four words which are still being used confusingly in both the same and different senses. Their meanings coincide, but also differ; that is, there is overlapping both in meaning and usage. Incidentally, the paper brings in also the Indian meanings and usages, which also have similar difficulties. In their usage the ontological, the cosmological, the epistemological and logical, and even the artistic (imitative art) meanings are mixed up. The intent is to raise the question: to what or to which are all these meanings moored or to be moored?".

  124. ———. 1962. Introduction to Comparative Philosophy. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

    Reprint: Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 1977.

    Contents: Preface V; General Introduction 3; 1. Western Philosophy and the Struggle for the Liberation of the Outward 13; 2. Chinese Philosophy and Human Mindfulness 93, 3. Indian Philosophy and Explication of Inwardness 169; 4. Comparisons and Reflections 249; Appendixes 337; Chronological Table 339; Glossary of Indian and Chinese Terms 352; Index 357.

  125. ———. 1963. "Comparative Philosophy and Spiritual Values: East and West." Philosophy East and West no. 13:211-225.

  126. ———. 1970. Lectures in Comparative Philosophy. Poona: University of Poona.

  127. Raud, Rein. 2006. "Philosophies versus Philosophy: In Defense of a Flexible Definition." Philosophy East and West no. 56:618-625.

  128. Rebok, Maria Gabriela. 1998. "Civilization and Cultural Identity in Postmodernity." Topoi no. 17:29-36.

  129. Reding, Jean-Paul. 2004. Comparative Essays in Early Greek and Chinese Rational Thinking. Aldershot: Ashgate.

  130. Rein'l, Robert L. 1953. "Comparative Philosophy and Intellectual Tolerance." Philosophy East and West no. 2:333-339.

  131. Reyna, Ruth. 1984. Dictionary of Oriental Philosophy. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.

  132. Rosán, Laurence J. 1952. "A Key to Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 2:56-65.

  133. ———. 1961. "Are Comparisons between the East and the West Fruitful for Comparative Philosophy?" Philosophy East and West no. 11:239-243.

  134. Rosemont, Henry Jr. 2014. "Symposium: Does the Concept of »Truth« Have Value in the Pursuit of Cross-Cultural Philosophy?" Confluence: Journal of World Philosophies no. 1:150-217.

  135. Ross, Donald. 2019. Introduction to World Philosophy. London: Austin Macauley Publishers.

  136. Santangelo, Paolo. 1993. "Italian Studies on Far Eastern Thought in Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 43:573-581.

  137. Scharfstein, Ben-Ami. 1998. A Comparative History of World Philosophy. From the Upanishads to Kant. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Contents: Preface XI; Acknowledgments XIII; Chapter 1. The three philosophical traditions 1; Chapter 2. The beginnings of metaphysical philosophy Uddalaka, Yajnavalkya, Heraclitus, Parmenides 55; Chapter 3. The beginnings of moral philosophy Confucius/Mencius, the Buddha, Socrates 79;

    Chapter 4. Early logical relativism, skepticism, and absolutism Mahavira, Chuang-tzu, Protagoras, Gorgias, Plato 113; Chapter 5. Early rational Synthesis Hsün-tzu, Aristotle 145; Chapter 6. Early varieties of atomism Democritus/Epicurus/Lucretius, "Gautama"' and Nameless Buddhists 171; Chapter 7. Hierarchical idealism Plotinus/Proclus, Bhartrhari 205; Chapter 8. Developed skepticism Sextus Empiricus, Nagarjuna, Jayarashi, Shriharsha 233; Chapter 9. Religio-philosophical synthesis U]dayana, Hsi, Avicenna, Mairnonides, Aquinas 275; Chapter 10. Logic-sensitized, methodological metaphysics Gangesha, Descartes, Leibniz 329; Chapter 11. Immanent-transcendent holism Shankara, Spinoza 367, Chapter 12. Perceptual analysis, realistic and idealistic Asanga/Vasuhandu, Locke, Berkeley, Hume 407; Chapter 13. Fideistic neo-skepticism Dignaga/Dhamakirti, Kant 467; Afterword 517; Notes 531; Bibliography 655; Note on the Author 659; Index 661.

    From the Preface: "Because I hope that newcomers to the history of philosophy will be among the readers of this hook, I have taken care to explain whatever I think they need to know. The book begins with the reasons for studying philosophy comparatively and with the difficulties raised by such study, and it ends with a view of philosophy that is personal but that rests on all of the preceding discussion The philosophers dealt with represent certain attitudes. schools. and traditions, but they are remembered most interestingly and accurately as individuals. So even though I have had to omit a great deal and make schematic summaries, I have in each instance tried to suggest the philosopher's style, density, and order of thought. In its later chapters the book tends to grow more difficult and elaborate, like the philosophies it deals with; but the early chapters prepare for the later ones. and, whatever the difficulty, I have always wittiest as simply and clearly as I can.

    To avoid making a long book forbiddingly longer, I have limited not only the number of philosophers dealt with but also the range of thought by which each of them is represented Plato. for example, is limited to his theory of Ideas and Kant (except in the later discussion) to his Critique of Pure Reason. In keeping with the needs of a particular comparison. I have sometimes drawn a broad sketch and sometimes entered into details. When it has seemed natural. I have shared my own views with the reader-there is no good reason to pretend that I am a neutral, disembodied voice. But however I judge each philosopher's thought, I have committed myself to expound it with a minimum of bias." (p. XI)

  138. ———. 2001. "How important is truth to epistemology and knowledge? Some answers from comparative philosophy." Social Epistemology: A Journal of Knowledge no. 15:275-283.

  139. Schiltz, Elizabeth. 2014. "How to Teach Comparative Philosophy." Teaching Philosophy no. 37:215-231.

    Abstract: "This article articulates a range of possible pedagogical goals for courses in comparative philosophy, and discusses a number of methods and strategies for teaching courses intended to achieve those ends. Ultimately, it argues that the assignment to teach comparative philosophy represents an opportunity to design a course with remarkable freedom and tremendous potential. Comparative philosophy courses can engage students in unique ways that not only increase their understanding of the fundamental assumptions and beliefs of non-Western traditions, but also facilitate the development of the skills and dispositions that enable them to become better philosophers."

  140. Seaford, Richard. 2020. The Origins of Philosophy In Ancient Greece and Ancient India: A Historical Comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  141. Selusi, Ambrogio. 2021. Chinese and Indian Ways of Thinking in Early Modern European Philosophy: Th e Reception and the Exclusion. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

  142. Shaner, David Edward, Nagatomo, Shigenori, and Yasuo, Yuasa. 1989. Science and Comparative Philosophy: Introducing Yuasa Yasuo. Leiden: Brill.

  143. Sheldon, Wilmon H. 1956. "What Can Western Philosophy Contribute to Eastern?" Philosophy East and West no. 5:291-304.

  144. Shen, Vincent. 2003. "Some Thoughts on Intercultural Philosophy and Chinese Philosophy." Journal of Chinese Philosophy no. 30:357-372.

  145. Shi'er, Ju. 2010. "The Cultural Relativity of Logic: From the Viewpoint of Ethnography and Historiography." Social Sciences in China no. 31:73-89.

    Abstract: "The concept of general argumentation has expanded the family of logic so that it incorporates the logic of other cultures besides modern culture. Based on reports of fieldwork among the Azande and the fruits of research on ancient Chinese logic and the logic of Buddhism, this paper attempts to provide a factual foundation for the proposition “the cultural relativity of logic” from a descriptive perspective. Adopting deductive argument as a meta-method, this paper argues for the existence of the cultural relativity of logic in modern culture and of the translated version of the logic of other cultures in modern culture. With the aid of ethnography and the historical research findings, we show that the logic of other cultures also has its own cultural relativity. We also seek to show through the concepts of language games and life forms that deductive argumentation as a meta-method likewise possesses cultural relativity."

  146. Siderits, Mark. 2017. "Comparison or Confluence In Philosophy?" In The Oxford Handbook of Indian Philosophy, edited by Ganeri, Jonardon, 75-92. New York: Oxford University Press.

  147. Silius, Vytis. 2020. "Diversifying Academic Philosophy: The Post-Comparative Turn and Transculturalism." Asian Studies no. 8:257-280.

    Abstract: "The article asks why, in Western universities, the success of the academic field of comparative philosophy has so far failed to significantly diversify the curricula of academic philosophy. It suggests that comparative philosophy has mainly relied on the same approaches that have made academic philosophy Eurocentric, namely, on the history of philosophy as the main mode of teaching and researching philosophy. Further, post-comparative philosophy and transcultural studies are presented as providing tools to address the foundations of the institutional parochialism of academic philosophy, while preserving one of the most fundamental tenets of philosophy—the quest for universal knowledge that transcends cultural particularities."

  148. Smart, Ninian. 2008. World Philosophies. New York: Routledge.

    Revised second edition edited by Oliver Leaman (First edition 1999).

  149. Smid, Robert W. 2009. Methodologies of Comparative Philosophy: the Pragmatist and Process Traditions. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  150. Smith, Huston. 1980. "Western and Comparative Perspectives on Truth." Philosophy East and West no. 30:425-437.

  151. Solomon, Robert C., and Higgins, Kathleen M., eds. 1995. World Philosophy: A Text with Readings. New York: McGraw Hill.

  152. ———, eds. 2003. From Africa to Zen: An Invitation to World Philosophy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Second expanded edition (First edition 1993).

  153. Soni, Jayandra. 1998. "Intercultural Relevance of Some Moments in the History of Indian Philosophy." Topoi no. 17:49-55.

  154. Sprung, Mervyn, ed. 1978. The Question of Being: East-West Perspectives. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

    Each chapter in this book (except the first) originated at a symposium arranged by the philosophy department of Brock University, St. Catherines, Ontario.

    Contents: Mervyn Sprung: The Question of Being as comparative philosophy 1; Some Western Perspectives: Joseph Owens: Being in early Western tradition 17; Charles H. Kahn: Linguistic relativism and the Greek project of ontology 31; Hans Georg Gadamer: Plato and Heidegger 45; Zygmunt Adamczewski: Questions in Heidegger's thought about Being 55; Robert C. Schaff: Heidegger's path of thinking and the Way of Meditation in the early Upanisads 67; Some eastern perspectives: Wilhelm Halbfass: On Being and What There Is: Indian perspectives on the Question of Being 95; J. G. Arapura: Some special characteristics of Sat (Being) in Advaita Vedanta 111; Mervyn Sprung: Being and the Middle Way 127; Jindra Nath Mohanty: Some aspects of Indian thinking on Being 141; Index 159-161.

  155. Steineck, Raji C., and Wber, Ralph, eds. 2018. Concepts of Philosophy in Asia and the Islamic World: Vol. 1: China and Japan. Leiden: Brill.

  156. Stenger, Georg. 1998. "Structures of World-Oriented Encounter: The World Concept and the Intercultural Basic Situation." Topoi no. 17:37-47.

  157. Stepaniants, Marietta Tigranovna. 2002. Introduction to Eastern Thought. Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press.

    Edited by James Behuniak. Translated from the Russian by Rommela Kohanovskaya.

    Contents: Foreword by Eliot Deutsch XI; Preface XIII;

    Part 1. Interpretive essays.

    1. The birth of philosophy 3; 2. The Universe: its origin and structure 11; 3. Human nature 35; 4. In search of the truth 63; 5. Tradition and modernity 87;

    Part 2. Primary sources.

    6. Indian tradition 107; 7. Chinese tradition 158; 8. Islamic tradition 233; Index 285; About the Author 293.

  158. Struhl, Karsten J. 2010. "No (More) Philosophy Without Cross-Cultural Philosophy." Philosophy Compass no. 5:287-295.

  159. Sweet, William, ed. 2014. What is Intercultural Philosophy? Washington: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy.

  160. Tang, YIjie. 1983. "A Perspective on the Meaning of Comparative Philosophy and Comparative Religion Studies: The Case of the Introduction of Indian Buddhism into

    China." Chinese Studies in Philosophy no. 15:39-106.

  161. Tuck, Andrew P. 1990. Comparative Philosophy and the Philosophy of Scholarship: On the Western Interpretation of Nāgārjuna. New York: Oxford University Press.

  162. Udoidem, Iniobong S. 1987. "Wiredu on How Not to Compare African Thought with Western Thought: A Commentary." African Studies Review no. 30:101-104.

  163. van Brakel, Jaap. 2006. "De-essentialising Across the Board: No Need to Speak the Same Language." Rechtstheorie & Rechtspraktijk no. 35:263-284.

  164. ———. 2014. "Heidegger on Zhuangzi and Uselessness. Illustrating Preconditions of Comparative Philosophy." Journal of Chinese philosophy no. 41:387-406.

    Abstract: "In this article, I look at those passages in the Zhuangzi usually associated with ‘‘uselessness.’’ I discuss in what way these passages may have been suggestive to Martin Heidegger to explain his ideas of the necessity of the other thinking and of the ‘‘waiting people’’ being entirely unusable to others. Then I make some brief comments concerning basic conditions of interpretation, using examples taken from the Zhuangzi passages discussed. These conditions include family resemblance across the board, a principle of agreement, and the issue of ‘‘planetarization’’ (Heidegger’s term)."

  165. van Brakel, Jaap, and Ma, Lin. 2015. "Extension of Family Resemblance Concepts as a Necessary Condition of Interpretation across Traditions." Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 14:475-497.

    Abstract: "In this paper we extend Wittgenstein’s notion of family resemblance to translation, interpretation, and comparison across traditions. There is no need for universals. This holds for everyday concepts such as green and qing 青, philosophical concepts such as emotion(s) and qing 情, as well as philosophical categories such as form(s) of life and dao 道. These notions as well as all other concepts from whatever tradition are family resemblance concepts. We introduce the notion of quasi-universal, which connects family resemblance concepts from a limited number of traditions. The possibility and necessity of extending family resemblance concepts across traditions dissolves the false antinomy of universalism versus relativism."

  166. Van Norden, Brian W. 2017. Taking Back Philosophy: A Multicultural Manifesto. New York: Columbia University Press.

  167. Wang, Xinli. 2018. "Incommensurability and Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 68:564-582.

  168. Weber, Ralph. 2013. "“How to Compare?” – On the Methodological State of Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy Compass no. 8:593-603.

  169. ———. 2014. "Comparative Philosophy and the Tertium: Comparing What with What, and in What Respect?" Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 13:151-171.

  170. ———. 2018. "Reply to Xiao Ouyang." Philosophy East and West no. 68:256-261.

  171. Wen, Haiming. 2010. "A Survey of Roger Ames's Methodology on Comparative Philosophy." Contemporary Chinese Thought no. 41:52-63.

  172. White, David. 1956. "Translation and Oriental Philosophy: An Introductory Study." Philosophy East and West no. 6:247-255.

  173. Wimmer, Franz Martin. 1998. "Introduction." Topoi no. 17:1-13.

  174. ———. 2002. Essays on Intercultural Philosophy. Chennai: Satya Nilayam Publications.

  175. Wiredu, J. E. [Kwasi]. 1997. "How Not to Compare African Traditional Thought with Western Thought." Transition: A Journal of the Arts, Culture and Society no. 75/76:320-327.

    Reprinted in K. Wiredu, Philosophy and an African Culture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1980 and in Albert G. Mosley, African Philosophy: Selected Readings, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall 1995, pp. 159-171.

  176. Xie, Ming. 2011. Conditions of Comparison: Reflections on Comparative Intercultural Inquiry. New York: Continuum.

  177. Xu, Keqian. 2010. "Chinese “Dao” and Western “Truth”: A Comparative and Dynamic Perspective." Asian Social Science no. 6:42-49.

  178. Yang, Guorong. 2005. "Knowing, Being, and Wisdom: A Comparative Study." Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 57-72.

  179. Yang, Xiaomei. 2011. "Do Differences in Grammatical Form between Languages Explain Differences in Ontology between Different Philosophical Traditions?: A Critique of the Mass-Noun Hypothesis." Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 10:149-166.

  180. Zhang, Ji. 2012. One and Many: A Comparative Study of Plato’s Philosophy and Daoism Represented by Ge Hong. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.

  181. Zhang, Longxi. 2007. Unexpected Affinities: Reading across Cultures. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

  182. ———. 2016. "Comparison and Correspondence: Revisiting an Old Idea for the Present Time." Comparative Literature Studies no. 53:766-785.

  183. ———. 2017. "East-West Comparative Studies: A Challenge and an Opportunity." Know: A Journal on the Formation of Knowledge no. 1:45-65.

  184. Zhang, Xianglong. 2010. "Comparison Paradox, Comparative Situation and Inter-Paradigmaticity: A Methodological Reflection on Cross-Cultural Philosophical Comparison." Comparative Philosophy no. 1:90-105.

    Abstract: "It is commonly believed that philosophical comparison depends on having some common measure or standard between and above the compared parts. The paper is to show that the foregoing common belief is incorrect and therewith to inquire into the possibility of cross-cultural philosophical comparison. First, the "comparison paradox‟ will be expounded.

    It is a theoretical difficulty for the philosophical tendency represented by Plato's theory of Ideas to justify comparative activities. Further, the connection of the comparative paradox with the obstacles met by cross-cultural philosophical comparisons will be demonstrated. It will be shown that to attribute the difficulty of cross-cultural comparisons to incommensurability of traditions is irrelevant and misleading. It is to be argued that the original possibility of comparison depends on the "comparative situation‟, i.e., the mechanism of meaning-production that functions in a non-universalistic and anonymous way. A philosophical paradigm does facilitate the attendance of such a situation, but it is also possible for the situation to emerge between paradigms in a gamesome way. Accordingly, the genuine comparison at issue will not originate primarily and merely on the level of concepts and propositions, but can only be achieved through inter-paradigmatic conditions, where we have the sharp awareness of a paradigm‟s boundary from which we can attempt to achieve situational communication with another paradigm. In light of this, the perspective of a philosophical comparison differs not only from the traditional or universalistic one, but also from Gadamer‟s hermeneutics, such as the doctrine of "fusion of horizons‟. The new perspective finds an illustration in Heidegger‟s relations with Daoism."

  185. Zong, Desheng. 2010. "A New Framework for Comparative Study of Philosophy." Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 9:445-459.

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